In Brazil, a Bachelor's, Licenciate or Technologist degree is required in order to enter a graduate program, called pós-graduação. Generally, in order to be accepted, the candidate must have above average grades and it is highly recommended to be initiated on scientific research through government programs on undergraduate areas, as a complement to usual coursework.

It is also common for master's degree graduates to focus on a specialization or earn a license. For example, an individual with a master's degree in nursing may choose to become a nurse practitioner. In this case, they would be required to receive a license from the state in which they live as well as a certification from a national organization. A nurse practitioner can also decide to specialize in acute care, adults, pediatrics, or families.
In 2000 renewed pressure was put on Oxbridge MAs in the UK Parliament, with Labour MP Jackie Lawrence introducing an early day motion calling for them to be scrapped and telling the Times Higher Education it was a "discriminatory practice" and that it "devalues and undermines the efforts of students at other universities".[40][41] The following month the Quality Assurance Agency announced the results of a survey of 150 major employers showing nearly two thirds mistakenly thought the Cambridge MA was a postgraduate qualification and just over half made the same error regarding the Edinburgh MA, with QAA chief executive John Randall calling the Oxbridge MA "misleading and anachronistic".[42]
The School of Biological and Population Health Sciences offers a graduate program leading to the Master of Science (MS) and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degrees in Nutrition. This program of study integrates multiple disciplines relevant to nutrition, including molecular, biochemical, physiological and clinical nutrition. The overall goal is for the student to...
Students who are considering pursing an advanced degree at the graduate degree level often have many questions about what to expect in grad school. Going to graduate school is both a costly and time-consuming endeavor and students may feel nervous about committing to advancing their education. You are not alone. At some point in time the frequently asked questions we have gathered have been asked by one student or another. We are hear to help provide answers to these questions the best we can. Let's start with the question of popularity. To the right, we have listed popular subjects our users visit often.
Students studying part-time for a master's degree can apply for income-based Jobseeker's Allowance provided their timetabled hours are fewer than 16 hours per week. This also entitles the student to housing benefit provided by their local council.[citation needed] Full-time students (of any type) are not normally eligible for state benefits, including during vacation time.[35]

The traditional and most common way of obtaining a doctorate in Germany is by doing so individually under supervision of a single professor (Doktorvater or Doktormutter) without any formal curriculum. During their studies, doctoral students are enrolled at university while often being employed simultaneously either at the university itself, at a research institute or at a company as a researcher.[5] Working in research during doctoral studies is, however, not a formal requirement.
Master of Arts in History Master of Arts in International Relations Online Master of Arts in Military History Master of Business Administration - Project Management Master of Business Administration - Energy Management Master of Business Administration - Supply Chain Management and Logistics Master of Business Administration - Finance Master of Business Administration - General Master of Business Administration - Organizational Leadership Master of Public Administration – Public Works and Sustainability Concentration Master of Public Administration – Fiscal Management Concentration Master of Public Administration – Organizational Leadership Master of Public Administration – Leadership and Crisis Management Master of Public Administration – Criminal Justice and Public Safety Concentration Master of Civil Engineering Master of Science in Nursing - Nursing Administration Master of Public Administration - General Master of Science in Nursing - Nursing Educator Master of Science in Leadership Master of Civil Engineering - Construction Management Master of Civil Engineering - Structural Engineering Master of Civil Engineering - Geotechnical Engineering Master of Civil Engineering - Environmental/Water Resources Engineering Master of Public Administration – Municipal Governance Master of Public Administration – Nonprofit Management Concentration
The United Auto Workers (under the slogan "Uniting Academic Workers") and the American Federation of Teachers are two international unions that represent graduate employees. Private universities' administrations often oppose their graduate students when they try to form unions, arguing that students should be exempt from labor laws intended for "employees". In some cases unionization movements have met with enough student opposition to fail. At the schools where graduate employees are unionized, which positions are unionized vary. Sometimes only one set of employees will unionize (e.g. teaching assistants, residential directors); at other times, most or all will. Typically, fellowship recipients, usually not employed by their university, do not participate.

Nurse anesthetists treat patients undergoing anesthesia for a surgical procedure or another medical procedure. They interview patients beforehand to determine the best anesthesia, monitor the vital signs of patients during a procedure, and evaluate patients after receiving anesthesia. Nurse anesthetists must hold at least a master's degree, and most work in hospitals, surgical centers, and other clinical settings.
The competition for public universities is very large, as they are the most prestigious and respected universities in Brazil. Public universities do not charge fees for undergraduate level/course. Funding, similar to wages, is available but is usually granted by public agencies linked to the university in question (i.e. FAPESP, CAPES, CNPq, etc.), given to the students previously ranked based on internal criteria.
Often enough, terms like Master of Arts and Master of Sciences are abbreviated, and the rules on how to do it vary from one university and style guide to another. The academic title Master of Arts can be abbreviated as MA or M.A., and if the university in question is keen on Latin phrases, it may be abbreviated as AM or A.M., from the Latin Artium Magister.
At most institutions, decisions regarding admission are not made by the institution itself but the department to which the student is applying. Some departments may require interviews before making a decision to accept an applicant.[7] Most universities adhere to the Council of Graduate Schools' Resolution Regarding Graduate Scholars, Fellows, Trainees, and Assistants, which gives applicants until April 15 to accept or reject offers that contain financial support.[12]
The option in control and dynamical systems (CDS) is open to students with an undergraduate degree in engineering, mathematics, or science. The qualifications of each applicant will be considered individually, and, after being enrolled, the student will arrange his or her program in consultation with a member of the faculty. In some cases the student may be required to make up undergraduate deficiencies in engineering science courses.  The CDS option emphasizes the interdisciplinary nature of modern theory of dynamical systems and control. The curriculum is designed to promote a broad knowledge of mathematical and experimental techniques in dynamical systems theory and control. In addition to taking courses in the CDS option, students must select a focus area.
The supervisory committee is the group of faculty members that supervises and approves the student’s graduate program. The committee’s function is to guide the student through his/her thesis research and to administer the oral final examination. The supervisory committee should be selected as soon as possible but no later than the end of the second semester. After the committee has been determined, the student should obtain a Supervisory Committee Form from the ECE Student Services Office (230 Larsen) and have the professors sign the form indicating their willingness to serve on the committee. The Graduate School may deny degrees to any persons who have failed to comply with this regulation at the proper time.
Graduate students in biology come with very diverse undergraduate preparation—majors in physics, chemistry, mathematics, or psychology, as well as in biology and its various branches. The aims of the graduate program are to provide, for each student, individual depth of experience and competence in a particular chosen major specialty; perception of the nature and logic of biology as a whole; sufficient strength in basic science to allow continued self-education after formal training has been completed and thus to keep in the forefront of changing fields; and the motivation to serve his or her field productively through a long career.  In accordance with these aims, the graduate study program in biology includes the following parts: (a) the major program, which is to provide the student with early and intense original research experience in a self-selected subject of biology, supplemented with advanced course work and independent study in this subject; and (b) a program of course work designed to provide well-rounded and integrated training in biology and the appropriate basic sciences, 
which is adjusted to special interests and needs. An individual program will be recommended to each student in a meeting with the student’s advisory committee.

Graduate school, often referred to as grad school, is a college or university that offers advanced academic programs resulting in a master’s degree, doctorate degree or certificate. Most require students to already have completed a bachelor’s program and earned a minimum GPA. Many universities offer graduate programs, though the “graduate school” within the institution. The coursework in a grad school will be more advanced and focused as the goal of a graduate student is to concentrate their studies in a specific subject area and develop advanced knowledge and skills.
Generally, the Australian higher education system[23] follows that of its British counterpart (with some notable exceptions). Entrance is decided by merit, entrance to coursework-based programmes is usually not as strict; most universities usually require a "Credit" average as entry to their taught programmes in a field related to their previous undergraduate. On average, however, a strong "Credit" or "Distinction" average is the norm for accepted students. Not all coursework programs require the student to already possess the relevant undergraduate degree, they are intended as "conversion" or professional qualification programs, and merely any relevant undergraduate degree with good grades is required.
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