A doctoral degree is the highest level of graduate degree. It is achieved by a little more than one percent of the population, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. As is the case with all higher education, the cost of a doctoral degree will vary by school, but can be a significant investment. Most students complete doctoral degree programs within ten years, although some finish in as little as four years.
Industrial Engineering is the application of science, mathematics, and engineering methods to complex system integration and operation. Because the systems with which they work is so large and complex, industrial engineers (IEs) must develop expertise in a wide variety of disciplines, the ability to work well with people, and a broad, systems perspective.
In the Netherlands the titles ingenieur (ir.), meester (mr.) and doctorandus (drs.) may be rendered, if obtained in the Netherlands from a university, after the application of the Bologna process, as: MSc instead of ir., LLM instead of mr. and MA or MSc instead of drs.[84] This is because a single program that led to these degree was in effect before 2002, which comprised the same course load as the bachelor and master programs put together. Those who had already started the program could, upon completing it, bear the appropriate title (MSc, LLM or MA), but alternatively still use the old-style title (ir., mr. or drs.), corresponding to their field of study. Since these graduates do not have a separate bachelor's degree (which is in fact – in retrospect – incorporated into the program), the master's degree is their first academic degree. Bearers of foreign master's degree are able to use the titles ir., mr. and drs. only after obtaining a permission to bear such titles from the Dienst Uitvoering Onderwijs. Those who received their mr., ir. or drs. title after the application of the Bologna process have the option of signing as A. Jansen, MA or A. Jansen, MSc, depending on the field in which the degree was obtained, since the ir., mr. and drs. titles are similar to a master's degree, and the shortcut MA or MSc. may officially be used in order to render such title as an international title.[85][86][87][88]
The Professional Science Master, or PSM degree, is a graduate degree intended to allow students to pursue advance training in science or mathematics at the same time as developing workplace skills. PSM programs tend to be interdisciplinary, can take about 2 years of full time study, and usually involve an internship. Often, you can find the PSM degree in forensic science, computational chemistry, applied mathematics and bioinformatics programs (STEM fields).
The most common type of doctoral degree is the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D), which generally includes several years of coursework followed by the completion of a dissertation. The Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) is also well-known, and generally includes residencies and internships. Another popular graduate degree is the Juris Doctor (J.D.), which is a professional doctorate in law. A J.D. is required to practice law in the U.S. and many other countries.
Graduate studies in Environmental Engineering at Oregon State University emphasize the understanding of fundamental scientific and engineering principles to manage and solve environmental problems in natural and engineering systems. The instructional program is designed to develop strong analytical, design, and management capabilities in the application of biological, chemical and physical...

Postgraduate studies in Israel require the completion of a bachelor's degree and is dependent upon this title's grades; see Education in Israel #Higher education. Degrees awarded are the M.A., M.Sc., M.B.A. and LLM; the Technion awards a non-thesis M.Eng. [95] There also exists "a direct track" doctorate degree, which lasts four to five years. Taking this route, students prepare a preliminary research paper during their first year, after which they must pass an exam before being allowed to proceed, at which point they are awarded a master's degree.

Most of the confusion with Australian postgraduate programmes occurs with the research-based programmes, particularly scientific programmes. Research degrees generally require candidates to have a minimum of a second-class four-year honours undergraduate degree to be considered for admission to a Ph.D. programme (M.Phil. are an uncommon route[24]). In science, a British first class honours (3 years) is not equivalent to an Australian first class honours (1 year research postgraduate programme that requires a completed undergraduate (pass) degree with a high grade-point average).[25] In scientific research, it is commonly accepted that an Australian postgraduate honours is equivalent to a British master's degree (in research). There has been some debate over the acceptance of a three-year honours degree (as in the case of graduates from British universities) as the equivalent entry requirement to graduate research programmes (M.Phil., Ph.D.) in Australian universities.[26] The letters of Honours programmes also added to the confusion. For example: B.Sc. (Hons) are the letters gained for postgraduate research honours at the University of Queensland. B.Sc. (Hons) does not indicate that this honours are postgraduate qualification. The difficulty also arises between different universities in Australia—some universities have followed the UK system.
Oregon State University offers both Master and PhD Public Policy degrees for students interested in the study and practice of policy about issues critical to Oregonians and the world, drawing on the traditional strengths and emerging signature areas of OSU. While there is a science of policy including theoretical and methodological approaches that we expect students to master, the discipline...

MA in Education and Human Development in Educational Leadership and Administration Master of Arts in Education and Human Development in Special Education for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners MA in Education and Human Development in Interdisciplinary Secondary Transition Services MSHS in Integrative Medicine - FELLOWSHIP MSHS in Integrative Medicine MSHS in Integrative Medicine - NUTRITION Political Management MA in Education and Human Development in Educational Technology Leadership MA in Education and Human Development in Organizational Leadership and Learning Strategic Public Relations Master of Business Administration in Healthcare MSHS in Regulatory Affairs MSHS in Health Care Quality MSHS in Correctional Health Administration Dual Degree: BSHS/MSHS in Clinical Research Administration MSHS in Biomedical Informatics MSHS in Translational Microbiology MSHS in Molecular Diagnostic Sciences MSHS in Laboratory Medicine MSHS in Immunohematology and Biotechnology MSHS in Clinical Operations and Healthcare Management MSHS in Clinical Microbiology

The Professional Science Master, or PSM degree, is a graduate degree intended to allow students to pursue advance training in science or mathematics at the same time as developing workplace skills. PSM programs tend to be interdisciplinary, can take about 2 years of full time study, and usually involve an internship. Often, you can find the PSM degree in forensic science, computational chemistry, applied mathematics and bioinformatics programs (STEM fields).
In some countries such as Finland and Sweden, there is the degree of Licentiate, which is more advanced than a master's degree but less so than a Doctorate. Credits required are about half of those required for a doctoral degree.[10] Coursework requirements are the same as for a doctorate, but the extent of original research required is not as high as for doctorate.[11][12] Medical doctors for example are typically licentiates instead of doctors.
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