In 1983, the Engineering Council issued a "'Statement on enhanced and extended undergraduate engineering degree courses", proposing the establishment of a four-year first degree (Master of Engineering).[37][38] These were up and running by the mid 1980s and were followed in the early 1990s by the MPhys for physicists and since then integrated master's degrees in other sciences such as MChem, MMath, and MGeol, and in some institutions general or specific MSci (Master in Science) and MArts (Master in Arts) degrees. This development was noted by the Dearing Report into UK Higher Education in 1997, which called for the establishment of a national framework of qualifications and identified five different routes to master's degrees:[39]
The Master of Business Administration, or MBA degree,  is a master’s degree in business administration (management) that actually originated in the U.S. as a scientific approach to management; it is both a terminal degree and a professional degree. Core topics in MBA programs commonly cover accounting, finance, marketing, human resources, operations.
Setting GALCIT apart from others are our unrivaled experimental facilities in fluids, solids, materials, biomechanics, propulsion, and combustion; our exceptional faculty; our rigorous graduate student training; and our emphasis on the basics. We also maintain close connections to industry and government labs. An extremely broad range of research is done by the professors in GALCIT, their colleagues, and students. The GALCIT faculty maintain strong connections with colleagues throughout the Division, the Institute, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Our faculty collaborate with colleagues from Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Applied Physics and Materials Science, Computing and Mathematical Sciences, Bioengineering, Geology and Planetary Sciences, and JPL. Research in Biological Fluid Dynamics is carried out by GALCIT faculty and colleagues throughout Caltech.
Graduate School USA (GSUSA) recently applied for accreditation with the Accrediting Council for Continuing Education and Training (ACCET). In pursuit of the accreditation, GSUSA will be amending our Evening and Weekend Programs curriculum to ensure consistency and compliance with ACCET requirements. As we make these transformations, we are discontinuing Evening and Weekend Programs, as of June 24, 2019.
A French diplôme d'ingénieur (postgraduate degree in engineering) is also the equivalent of a master's degree, provided the diploma is recognised by the Commission des titres d'ingénieur, as are qualifications recognised at Level I of the répertoire national des certifications professionnelles (national register of professional certificates).[81][82]
Enrolling in a master's degree program is a significant investment. And as the earnings studies from the Bureau of Labor Statistics show, it can be a very worthwhile one. But those higher earnings start to come in, tuition (and other) bills need to be paid in the short term. Fortunately, there are a number of financial resources that can help make a master's degree program more affordable. Scholarships, grants, and educational loans are all designed to aid eligible master's degree students in paying for tuition, books, and living expenses.
Agricultural Education offers course work that serves teachers and leaders in agriculture. The M.S. and M.A.I.S. degrees may be pursued with an emphasis in leadership, communication, pedagogy, extension and/or technical agriculture. Candidates work with an adviser to develop programs that meet their specific needs as indicated by their occupational objectives.
Graduate study at the Institute is divided further into several graduate options, which are supervised by those faculty whose interests and research are closely related to the area of the option. Entering graduate students are admitted into one of the following options working towards a specific degree.  Almost all options offer the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), and a few options will admit students to a terminal Master's (MS).  In all other options, the Master's degree is awarded under special circumstances only.  Please check the departmental websites and/or the Institute Catalog for a list of the degrees offered.
In the second and third years of study, doctoral programs often require students to pass more examinations.[6] Programs often require a Qualifying Examination ("Quals"), a PhD Candidacy Examination ("Candidacy"), or a General Examination ("Generals"), designed to ensure students have a grasp of a broad sample of their discipline, and/or one or several Special Field Examinations ("Specials"), which test students in their narrower selected areas of specialty within the discipline. If these examinations are held orally, they may be known colloquially as "orals." For some social science and many humanities disciplines, where graduate students may or may not have studied the discipline at the undergraduate level, these exams will be the first set and be based either on graduate coursework or specific preparatory reading (sometimes up to a year's work in reading).
Setting GALCIT apart from others are our unrivaled experimental facilities in fluids, solids, materials, biomechanics, propulsion, and combustion; our exceptional faculty; our rigorous graduate student training; and our emphasis on the basics. We also maintain close connections to industry and government labs. An extremely broad range of research is done by the professors in GALCIT, their colleagues, and students. The GALCIT faculty maintain strong connections with colleagues throughout the Division, the Institute, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Our faculty collaborate with colleagues from Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Applied Physics and Materials Science, Computing and Mathematical Sciences, Bioengineering, Geology and Planetary Sciences, and JPL. Research in Biological Fluid Dynamics is carried out by GALCIT faculty and colleagues throughout Caltech.
As in the United Kingdom, M.Phil/MPhil/Master of Philosophy is the most advanced masters degree and usually includes both a taught portion and a research portion which requires candidates to complete an extensive original research for their thesis. Regardless of subject, students in all faculties (including sciences, arts, humanities and social sciences) may be awarded the Master of Philosophy.
Rural communities—both in the U.S. and globally—face an extraordinarily complex set of challenges due to sparse settlements and geographic isolation, exacerbated by globalization and technological change in an interdependent urban-rural system. Addressing these challenges requires both the theoretical insights of multiple disciplines and the practical wisdom that derives from engagement in...
From the late Middle Ages until the nineteenth century, the pattern of degrees was therefore to have a bachelor's and master's degree in the lower faculties and to have bachelor's and doctorates in the higher faculties. In the United States, the first master's degrees (Magister Artium, or Master of Arts) were awarded at Harvard University soon after its foundation.[4] In Scotland, the pre-Reformation universities (St Andrews, Glasgow and Aberdeen) developed so that the Scottish MA became their first degree, while in Oxford, Cambridge and Trinity College, Dublin, the MA was awarded to BA graduates of a certain standing without further examination from the late seventeenth century, its main purpose being to confer full membership of the university.[5] At Harvard the 1700 regulations required that candidates for the master's degree had to pass a public examination,[6] but by 1835 this was awarded Oxbridge-style three years after the BA.[7]

The form "Master in ..." is also sometimes used, particularly where a faculty title is used for an integrated master's in addition to its use in a traditional postgraduate master's, e.g. Master in Science (MSci) and Master in Arts (MArts). This form is also sometimes used with other integrated master's degrees,[50] and occasionally for postgraduate master's degrees (e.g. Master's in Accounting).[51] Some universities use Latin degree names; because of the flexibility of syntax in Latin, the Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees may be known in these institutions as Magister artium and Magister scientiæ or reversed from the English order to Artium magister and Scientiæ magister. Examples of the reversed usage include Harvard University, the University of Chicago and MIT, leading to the abbreviations A.M. and S.M. for these degrees. The forms "Master of Science" and "Master in Science" are indistinguishable in Latin, thus MSci is "Master of Natural Sciences" at the University of Cambridge.
Admission to a master's (course-based, also called "non-thesis") program generally requires a bachelor's degree in a related field, with sufficiently high grades usually ranging from B+ and higher (note that different schools have different letter grade conventions, and this requirement may be significantly higher in some faculties), and recommendations from professors. Admission to a high-quality thesis-type master's program generally requires an honours bachelor or Canadian bachelor with honours, samples of the student's writing as well as a research thesis proposal. Some programs require Graduate Record Exams (GRE) in both the general examination and the examination for its specific discipline, with minimum scores for admittance. At English-speaking universities, applicants from countries where English is not the primary language are required to submit scores from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). Nevertheless, some French speaking universities, like HEC Montreal, also require candidates to submit TOEFL score or to pass their own English test.
Research master's degrees are primarily research based, although may contain taught elements, particularly on research methods. Examples are the MLitt (usually, but not always a research degree), the Master's by Research, and the MPhil. The Master's by Research (MbyRes, ResM), which is a research degree, is distinct from the Master of Research (MRes), which is a taught degree concentrating on research methods.[60]
In Nepal, after bachelor's degree about to at least three or four years with full-time study in college and university with an entrance test for those people who want to study further can study in master and further Ph.D. and doctorate degree. All doctoral and Ph.D. or third cycle degree are based on research and experience oriented and result based. Master of Engineering (M.Eng.), Master of Education (M.Ed.), Master of Arts (M.A.) and all law and medicine related courses are studied after completion of successful bachelor towards doctoral degree. M.B.B.S. is only a medical degree with six and half years of study resulting medical doctor and need to finish its study o 4 years of period joining after master degree with minimum education with 15 or 16 years of university bachelor's degree education. The most professional and internationalised program in Nepal are as follows:

The M.S. in Informatics is a 36-credit hour STEM-focused graduate degree program focusing on transforming raw data into decision-making information. This program is administered by the Department of Interdisciplinary Studies, as the information taught is interdisciplinary by nature, and can be used across industries. Courses are taught by faculty from the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and the School of Library and Information Management.


The QAA released the first "framework for higher education qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland" in January 2001. This specified learning outcomes for M-level (master's) degrees and advised that the title "Master" should only be used for qualifications that met those learning outcomes in full. It addressed many of the Dearing Report's concerns, specifying that shorter courses at H-level (honours), e.g. conversion courses, should be styled Graduate Diploma or Graduate Certificate rather than as master's degrees, but confirmed that the extended undergraduate degrees were master's degrees, saying that "Some Masters degrees in science and engineering are awarded after extended undergraduate programmes that last, typically, a year longer than Honours degree programmes". It also addressed the Oxbridge MA issue, noting that "the MAs granted by the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge are not academic qualifications".[43] The first "framework for qualifications of Higher Education Institutes in Scotland", also published in January 2001, used the same qualifications descriptors, adding in credit values that specified that a stand-alone master should be 180 credits and a "Masters (following an integrated programme from undergraduate to Masters level study)" should be 600 credits with a minimum of 120 at M-level. It was specified that the title "Master" should only be used for qualifications that met the learning outcomes and credit definitions, although it was noted that "A small number of universities in Scotland have a long tradition of labelling certain first degrees as 'MA'. Reports of Agency reviews of such provision will relate to undergraduate benchmarks and will make it clear that the title reflects Scottish custom and practice, and that any positive judgement on standards should not be taken as implying that the outcomes of the programme were at postgraduate level."[44]
This is a student's guide to hundreds of the most popular master's degree programs in the United States. Each of these articles provides specific information about a unique master's degree program such as required coursework and the occupational outlook. Please choose a field of study to find a more focused selection of master's degree program articles.
The School of Biological and Population Health Sciences offers a graduate program leading to the Master of Science (MS) and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degrees in Nutrition. This program of study integrates multiple disciplines relevant to nutrition, including molecular, biochemical, physiological and clinical nutrition. The overall goal is for the student to...
Graduate students often declare their intended degree (master's or doctorate) in their applications. In some cases, master's programs allow successful students to continue toward the doctorate degree. Additionally, doctoral students who have advanced to candidacy but not filed a dissertation ("ABD", for "all but dissertation") often receive master's degrees and an additional master's called a Master of Philosophy (MPhil) or a Candidate of Philosophy (C.Phil.) degree. The master's component of a doctorate program often requires one or two years.
In the second and third years of study, doctoral programs often require students to pass more examinations.[6] Programs often require a Qualifying Examination ("Quals"), a PhD Candidacy Examination ("Candidacy"), or a General Examination ("Generals"), designed to ensure students have a grasp of a broad sample of their discipline, and/or one or several Special Field Examinations ("Specials"), which test students in their narrower selected areas of specialty within the discipline. If these examinations are held orally, they may be known colloquially as "orals." For some social science and many humanities disciplines, where graduate students may or may not have studied the discipline at the undergraduate level, these exams will be the first set and be based either on graduate coursework or specific preparatory reading (sometimes up to a year's work in reading).
The Australian Qualifications Framework classifies master's degrees as research, coursework or extended. Research master's degrees typically take one to two years, and two thirds of their content consists of research, research training and independent study. Coursework master's degrees typically also last one to two years, and consist mainly of structured learning with some independent research and project work or practice-related learning. Extended master's degrees typically take three to four years and contain significant practice-related learning that must be developed in collaboration with relevant professional, statutory or regulatory bodies.[61]

Students must receive a final grade of “C” or better to receive degree credit for a letter graded course. A course with a final grade of “C” and above cannot be repeated for credit. If a student receives a grade less than a “C” for a course, s/he may retake the course and an average of both grades will be used when compiling GPA graduation requirements. Courses in which students receive a grade of “C‐“ or lower will not be used to fulfill credit requirements but will adversely affect a student’s GPA.
The Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering offers the non‐thesis option for the Master of Engineering and Master of Science degrees. The non‐thesis Master of Science student is required to do a technical job interview with an assigned faculty member. No final exam is required for students pursuing the non‐thesis Master of Engineering degree.
For the next several years, the doctoral candidate primarily performs his or her research. Usually this lasts three to eight years, though a few finish more quickly and some take substantially longer. In total, the typical doctoral degree takes between four and eight years from entering the program to completion though this time varies depending upon the department, thesis topic, and many other factors.
Up to 18 hours of Special Topics (EEL 5934, 6935, and 7936) may be applied toward the degree. Up to six hours of unstructured credit hours total (EEL 5905, EEL 6905 or EGN 5949) may be applied toward the degree. Students can count a maximum of 3 credits of EGN 5949 toward their degree program. No other S/U credit can be counted toward the degree. All non‐thesis students are required to have a one‐member supervisory committee. The ECE department chair serves as the default non‐thesis committee member for all non‐thesis students and is automatically appointed for all non‐thesis students during their graduating semester. Students must receive a final grade of “C” or better to receive degree credit for a letter graded course. A course with a final grade of “C” and above cannot be repeated for credit. If a student receives a grade less than a “C” for a course, s/he may retake the course and an average of both grades will be used when compiling GPA graduation requirements. Courses in which students receive a grade of “C‐“ or lower will not be used to fulfill credit requirements but will adversely affect a students’ GPA.
Nurses with an associate of science in nursing and an RN license qualify for ASN-to-MSN programs. Most programs that offer an RN-to-MSN program admit nurses with any type of associate degree in nursing, including the ASN. The typical admission requirements for an ASN-to-MSN program include a current, unencumbered RN license, an associate degree in nursing, and a minimum 3.0 GPA. Some programs also require test scores, letters of recommendation, a statement of purpose, or a resume.
The Master of Arts, or MA degree, is a type of graduate degree which includes all arts and humanities disciplines as well as some social sciences. The M.A. degree is typically awarded in English, history, communication studies, international relations, international business administration, humanities, philosophy, and social sciences. Generally, an MA degree takes 2 years of full-time study for a non-thesis program, and longer for a thesis option; the Master of Arts (M.A.) may either be entirely course-based, entirely research-based or a combination. Admission to M.A. programs is usually contingent on the applicant having previously obtained their Bachelor’s degree which is often a Bachelor of Arts.
With the establishment of Graduiertenkollegs funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), the German Research Foundation, in the early 1990s, the concept of a graduate school was introduced to the German higher education system. Unlike the American model of graduate schools, only doctoral students participate in a Graduiertenkolleg. In contrast to the traditional German model of doctoral studies, a Graduiertenkolleg aims to provide young researchers with a structured doctoral training under supervision of a team of professors within an excellent research environment. A Graduiertenkolleg typically consists of 20-30 doctoral students, about half of whom are supported by stipends from the DFG or another sponsor. The research programme is usually narrowly defined around a specific topic and has an interdisciplinary aspect. The programme is set up for a specific period of time (up to nine years if funded by the DFG). The official English translation of the term Graduiertenkolleg is Research Training Group.
"This program is designed to give students a thorough training in fundamental computational and applied mathematics and to develop their research ability in a specific application field.  The fields of application include a wide range of areas such as fluid mechanics, materials science, and mathematical biology, and engineering applications such as image processing. Entering students should have a background in mathematics, physics, or engineering.
The interdisciplinary problems posed by natural and human induced changes in the earth's environment are among the most interesting, difficult, and important facing today's scientists and engineers. The environmental science and engineering option is an interdivisional program of study by biologists, chemists, earth scientists, engineers, and physicists to investigate the functioning of and interactions among the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere.
Graduate students must usually declare their research goal or submit a research proposal upon entering grad school; in the case of master's degrees, there will be some flexibility (that is, one is not held to one's research proposal, although major changes, for example from premodern to modern history, are discouraged). In the case of Ph.D.s, the research direction is usually known as it will typically follow the direction of the master's research.
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