The graduate program in chemistry emphasizes research. This emphasis reflects the Institute’s traditional leadership in chemical research and the conviction that has permeated the Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering from its founding, that participation in original research is the best way to awaken, develop, and give direction to creativity.  Soon after a new graduate student arrives in the laboratories, he or she attends a series of orientation seminars that introduce students to the active research interests of the staff. Students then talk in detail with each of several staff members whose fields attract them, eventually settle upon the outlines of a research problem that interests them, and begin research upon it early in the first year. Students can elect to do research that crosses the boundaries of traditionally separate areas of chemistry, for in this relatively compact division, they are encouraged to go where their scientific curiosity drives them. A thesis that involves more than one adviser is not uncommon, and interdisciplinary programs with biology, physics, geology, chemical engineering, and environmental science and engineering science are open and encouraged.  An extensive program of seminars will enable students to hear of and discuss notable work in chemical physics, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry and electrochemistry, organometallic chemistry, and biochemistry and molecular biophysics. Graduate students are also encouraged to attend seminars in other divisions.


For the thesis option of a Master’s degree, students must complete at least 30 credit hours, which include a maximum of six credit hours of EEL 6971 (Research for Master’s Thesis). Thesis students must be registered for three credit hours of thesis (EEL 6971) in the term of graduation (Fall and Spring, and two credits in summer). EEL 6065, EEL 6910, EEL 6933, and EEL 6940 cannot be used to fulfill any credit requirements for the Master’s degree. The course requirements include a minimum of 18 hours of Electrical and Computer Engineering courses, excluding EEL 5905, 6905, and EGN 5949. CDA 5636 (Embedded Systems) can be used toward this course requirement by exception. This course requirement can only be fulfilled by completing ECE coursework at the University of Florida.
This interdisciplinary graduate minor in Food in Culture and Social Justice prepares students to examine food from a variety of perspectives. When and how we eat, what is considered acceptable to eat, how we prepare it, and how we learn about producing and eating food are all fascinating questions to explore by humanists and social scientists. Histories of particular food...
At English-speaking Canadian universities, both master's and Ph.D. theses may be presented in English or in the language of the subject (German for German literature, for example), but if this is the case an extensive abstract must be also presented in English. In exceptional circumstances, a thesis may be presented in French.[citation needed] The exception to this rule is McGill University, where all work can be submitted in either English or French, unless the purpose of the course of study is acquisition of a language.[29]
Master of Science in Special Education, concentration/endorsement in Gifted, Talented and Creative (K-6, 6-12, PreK-12). Research shows teachers with training in gifted education are more likely to encourage students' higher-level thinking, allow for greater expression, consider individual student strengths and weaknesses, and provide a variety of learning experiences to challenge students. Offered online.
Admission to a master's (course-based, also called "non-thesis") program generally requires a bachelor's degree in a related field, with sufficiently high grades usually ranging from B+ and higher (note that different schools have different letter grade conventions, and this requirement may be significantly higher in some faculties), and recommendations from professors. Admission to a high-quality thesis-type master's program generally requires an honours bachelor or Canadian bachelor with honours, samples of the student's writing as well as a research thesis proposal. Some programs require Graduate Record Exams (GRE) in both the general examination and the examination for its specific discipline, with minimum scores for admittance. At English-speaking universities, applicants from countries where English is not the primary language are required to submit scores from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). Nevertheless, some French speaking universities, like HEC Montreal, also require candidates to submit TOEFL score or to pass their own English test.
It is also common for master's degree graduates to focus on a specialization or earn a license. For example, an individual with a master's degree in nursing may choose to become a nurse practitioner. In this case, they would be required to receive a license from the state in which they live as well as a certification from a national organization. A nurse practitioner can also decide to specialize in acute care, adults, pediatrics, or families.
Traditionally, doctoral programs were only intended to last three to four years and, in some disciplines (primarily the natural sciences), with a helpful advisor, and a light teaching load, it is possible for the degree to be completed in that amount of time. However, increasingly many disciplines, including most humanities, set their requirements for coursework, languages and the expected extent of thesis research by the assumption that students will take five years minimum or six to seven years on average; competition for jobs within these fields also raises expectations on the length and quality of theses considerably.
A large share of the funding offered to junior researchers is channeled through the école doctorale, mainly in the shape of three-years "Doctoral Fellowships" (contrats doctoraux). These fellowships are awarded after submitting a biographical information, undergraduate and graduate transcripts where applicable, letters of recommendation, and research proposal, then an oral examination by an Academical Committee.
Students studying part-time for a master's degree can apply for income-based Jobseeker's Allowance provided their timetabled hours are fewer than 16 hours per week. This also entitles the student to housing benefit provided by their local council.[citation needed] Full-time students (of any type) are not normally eligible for state benefits, including during vacation time.[35]
Master of Science in Special Education, concentration/endorsement in Gifted, Talented and Creative (K-6, 6-12, PreK-12). Research shows teachers with training in gifted education are more likely to encourage students' higher-level thinking, allow for greater expression, consider individual student strengths and weaknesses, and provide a variety of learning experiences to challenge students. Offered online.
Additionally, doctoral students who have advanced to candidacy but not filed a dissertation ("ABD," for "all but dissertation") often receive master's degrees and an additional master's called a Master of Philosophy, or M.Phil., or C.Phil. "Candidate in Philosophy" degree. The master's component of a doctorate program often requires one or two years, and some students, because doctoral programs are sometimes better-funded, apply for doctoral programs while only intending to earn a master's degree. This is generally not acceptable and, if a student's advisor learns of the student's plans, can result in early termination.
In Scotland, Edinburgh maintained separate BA and MA degrees until the mid nineteenth century,[11] although there were major doubts as to the quality of the Scottish degrees of this period. In 1832 Lord Brougham, the Lord Chancellor and an alumnus of the University of Edinburgh, told the House of Lords that "In England the Universities conferred degrees after a considerable period of residence, after much labour performed, and if they were not in all respects so rigorous as the statutes of the Universities required, nevertheless it could not be said, that Masters of Arts were created at Oxford and Cambridge as they were in Scotland, without any residence, or without some kind of examination. In Scotland all the statutes of the Universities which enforced conditions on the grant of degrees were a dead letter."[12]
Prior to 2004, when the European system of LMD Bologna process was founded, the French equivalent of a Post Graduate degree was called a "Maitrise." For historical reasons dating back to the French Revolution of 1789, France has a dual education system, with Grandes Écoles on one side, and universities on the other hand, with the Grandes Écoles being considered as much more prestigious. Some Grandes écoles deliver the French diplôme d'ingénieur, which is ranked as a master's degree.
Many graduate students see themselves as akin to junior faculty, but with significantly lower pay.[citation needed] Many graduate students feel that teaching takes time that would better be spent on research, and many point out that there is a vicious circle in the academic labor economy. Institutions that rely on cheap graduate student labor have no need to create expensive professorships, so graduate students who have taught extensively in graduate school can find it immensely difficult to get a teaching job when they have obtained their degree. Many institutions depend heavily on graduate student teaching: a 2003 report by agitators for a graduate student union at Yale,[16] for instance, claims that "70% of undergraduate teaching contact hours at Yale are performed by transient teachers: graduate teachers, adjunct instructors, and other teachers not on the tenure track." The state of Michigan leads in terms of progressive policy regarding graduate student unions with five universities recognizing graduate employee unions: Central Michigan University, Michigan State University, the University of Michigan, Wayne State University, and Western Michigan University.
Each student is responsible for applying for his/her degree by the published deadlines for the semester of graduation. The degree application is available online via ONE UF. Students are also required to meet with the Graduate Advisor in the Student Services Office at the beginning of the semester that they intend to graduate to ensure that all degree requirements have been met. If a student fails to apply by the specified deadline, s/he will not receive the degree that semester.
Human development and family studies offers graduate work leading to master of science and doctor of philosophy degrees. Graduate programs take a multidisciplinary approach, preparing students for college and university teaching and research, as well as development, administration, and evaluation of programs serving individuals and families across the lifespan.

In the second and third years of study, doctoral programs often require students to pass more examinations.[6] Programs often require a Qualifying Examination ("Quals"), a PhD Candidacy Examination ("Candidacy"), or a General Examination ("Generals"), designed to ensure students have a grasp of a broad sample of their discipline, and/or one or several Special Field Examinations ("Specials"), which test students in their narrower selected areas of specialty within the discipline. If these examinations are held orally, they may be known colloquially as "orals." For some social science and many humanities disciplines, where graduate students may or may not have studied the discipline at the undergraduate level, these exams will be the first set and be based either on graduate coursework or specific preparatory reading (sometimes up to a year's work in reading).
The Bologna declaration in 1999 started the Bologna Process, leading to the creation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). This established a three-cycle bachelor's—master's—doctorate classification of degrees, leading to the adoption of master's degrees across the continent, often replacing older long-cycle qualifications such as the Magister (arts), Diplom (sciences) and state registration (professional) awards in Germany.[45] As the process continued, descriptors were introduced for all three levels in 2004, and ECTS credit guidelines were developed. This led to questions as to the status of the integrated master's degrees and one-year master's degrees in the UK.[46] However, the Framework for Higher Education Qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and the Framework for Qualifications of Higher Education Institutes in Scotland have both been aligned with the overarching framework for the EHEA with these being accepted as master's-level qualifications.
In Canada, the Schools and Faculties of Graduate Studies are represented by the Canadian Association of Graduate Studies (CAGS) or Association canadienne pour les études supérieures (ACES). The Association brings together 58 Canadian universities with graduate programs, two national graduate student associations, and the three federal research-granting agencies and organizations having an interest in graduate studies.[3] Its mandate is to promote, advance, and foster excellence in graduate education and university research in Canada. In addition to an annual conference, the association prepares briefs on issues related to graduate studies including supervision, funding, and professional development.
Human development and family studies offers graduate work leading to master of science and doctor of philosophy degrees. Graduate programs take a multidisciplinary approach, preparing students for college and university teaching and research, as well as development, administration, and evaluation of programs serving individuals and families across the lifespan.
In the United States there are many graduate employee unions at public universities. The Coalition of Graduate Employee Unions lists 25 recognized unions at public universities on its website. Private universities, however, are covered under the National Labor Relations Act rather than state labor laws and until 2001 there were no recognized unions at private universities.
The 18-credit Graduate Certificate in College and University Teaching is designed to provide advanced coursework and experiential learning opportunities to students who plan to pursue careers in teaching in higher education settings or who plan to pursue careers in other fields that may require similar facilitation skills. Students completing the Graduate Certificate in...
The 21-credit Graduate Certificate in Business Analytics is designed to provide advanced coursework and experiential learning opportunities to students interested in careers that involve the application of statistical modeling, data warehousing, data mining, programming, forecasting and operations research techniques to the analysis of problems of business organization and performance.
Are you interested in embarking upon a career in the federal, public, tribal, or community rehabilitation sectors? Emporia State University's Clinical Counseling with a Clinical Rehabilitation Counseling Concentration offers four options to study: generalist, deaf and hard of hearing persons, autism spectrum disorder, or autism spectrum disorder post-master's certificate. Offered on campus.
Foreign students are typically funded the same way as domestic (US) students, although federally subsidized student and parent loans and work-study assistance are generally limited to US citizens and nationals, permanent residents, and approved refugees.[37] Moreover, some funding sources (such as many NSF fellowships) may only be awarded to domestic students. Other factors contributing to possible financial difficulties include high costs to visit their families back home, supporting one's family who is not allowed to work due to immigration laws, tuition that is steep by world standards, and large fees: visa fees by US Citizenship and Immigration Services, surveillance fees (such as Student and Exchange Visitor Information Systems, or SEVIS[38]) by the United States Congress and the United States Department of Homeland Security.
This site presents the policies and procedures of the graduate program in the Department of Computer Science at Virginia Tech. The links at the right will guide you through the material. Mechanics that are common to all of the degrees are discussed in the Administrivia section. The rules specific to a given degree option, certificate, or program can be found under Degrees and Certificates.
Higher Education, M.S.Ed. Education, Culture, and Society, M.S.Ed. Teaching, Learning, and Learning, M.S.Ed. Reading/Writing/Literacy, M.S.Ed. Policy, Master of Science (M.S.) in Statistics, Measurement, Assessment, and Research Technology (SM Counseling and Mental Health Services Executive Program in School and Mental Health Counseling Quantitative Methods School Leadership Microbiology, Virology, and Parasitology Environmental Studies MBA/MA in International Studies Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages - TESOL History - Master Intercultural Communication Landscape Architecture - Master Language and Literacy - Master Master of Biotechnology Learning Science and Technologies Interdisciplinary Studies in Human Development - Master Graduate Group in Electrical Engineering - Master Mathematics - Master Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics - Master Teacher Education: Secondary Comparative Physiology
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), nurses are in high demand. In fact, the BLS projects 12% job growth for RNs -- a rate much faster than average -- by 2028. However, advanced practice RNs (APRNs) can expect higher demand. The projected job growth for nurse practitioners and other APRNs currently sits at 26%. Nurse practitioners also benefit from much higher salaries. While the average RN earns under $72,000 a year, the BLS reports that APRNs earn nearly $114,000 on average.
Graduate students often declare their intended degree (master's or doctorate) in their applications. In some cases, master's programs allow successful students to continue toward the doctorate degree. Additionally, doctoral students who have advanced to candidacy but not filed a dissertation ("ABD", for "all but dissertation") often receive master's degrees and an additional master's called a Master of Philosophy (MPhil) or a Candidate of Philosophy (C.Phil.) degree. The master's component of a doctorate program often requires one or two years.
The Sustainable Natural Resources graduate certificate is an 18-credit interdisciplinary program offered online through OSU Extended Campus. Students have a choice among 12 courses designed to build personal and organizational capacity to examine the many aspects of natural resource problems—environmental, economic, and social—in the search for innovative solutions.
The Master of Business Administration, or MBA degree,  is a master’s degree in business administration (management) that actually originated in the U.S. as a scientific approach to management; it is both a terminal degree and a professional degree. Core topics in MBA programs commonly cover accounting, finance, marketing, human resources, operations.

Graduate students in biology come with very diverse undergraduate preparation—majors in physics, chemistry, mathematics, or psychology, as well as in biology and its various branches. The aims of the graduate program are to provide, for each student, individual depth of experience and competence in a particular chosen major specialty; perception of the nature and logic of biology as a whole; sufficient strength in basic science to allow continued self-education after formal training has been completed and thus to keep in the forefront of changing fields; and the motivation to serve his or her field productively through a long career.  In accordance with these aims, the graduate study program in biology includes the following parts: (a) the major program, which is to provide the student with early and intense original research experience in a self-selected subject of biology, supplemented with advanced course work and independent study in this subject; and (b) a program of course work designed to provide well-rounded and integrated training in biology and the appropriate basic sciences, 
which is adjusted to special interests and needs. An individual program will be recommended to each student in a meeting with the student’s advisory committee.
Admission to a postgraduate degree programme in Nigeria requires a bachelor's degree with at least a Second Class Lower Division (not less than 2.75/5). Admission to Doctoral programmes requires an Academic master's degree with a minimum weighted average of 60% (B average or 4.00/5). In addition to this, applicants may be subjected to written and oral examinations depending on the school. Most universities with high numbers of applicants have more stringent admission processes.[32]
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