In 1983, the Engineering Council issued a "'Statement on enhanced and extended undergraduate engineering degree courses", proposing the establishment of a four-year first degree (Master of Engineering).[37][38] These were up and running by the mid 1980s and were followed in the early 1990s by the MPhys for physicists and since then integrated master's degrees in other sciences such as MChem, MMath, and MGeol, and in some institutions general or specific MSci (Master in Science) and MArts (Master in Arts) degrees. This development was noted by the Dearing Report into UK Higher Education in 1997, which called for the establishment of a national framework of qualifications and identified five different routes to master's degrees:[39]
MS Accounting MS in Financial Crime and Compliance Management MBA - Cyber Policy MBA - Cybersecurity MBA - Economic Crime and Fraud Management MBA - Data Analytics MS in Cybersecurity - Cyber Operations MS in Cybersecurity - Electronic Crime MS in Cybersecurity - Computer Forensics MBA - Finance and Accounting MBA - General MS in Cybersecurity MBA - Entrepreneurship MBA - Health Care Management MS in Cybersecurity - Malware Analysis MS in Cybersecurity - Cyber Intelligence MHA - Health Care Administration - Long Term Care MHA in Health Care Administration MHA - Health Care Administration - Acute Care MHA in Health Care Administration - Service Organization MS in Data Science - Cybersecurity MS in Data Science: Financial Crime MS in Data Science - Business Analytics MS in Data Science MS in Data Science: Social Science Analytics
In Scotland, Edinburgh maintained separate BA and MA degrees until the mid nineteenth century,[11] although there were major doubts as to the quality of the Scottish degrees of this period. In 1832 Lord Brougham, the Lord Chancellor and an alumnus of the University of Edinburgh, told the House of Lords that "In England the Universities conferred degrees after a considerable period of residence, after much labour performed, and if they were not in all respects so rigorous as the statutes of the Universities required, nevertheless it could not be said, that Masters of Arts were created at Oxford and Cambridge as they were in Scotland, without any residence, or without some kind of examination. In Scotland all the statutes of the Universities which enforced conditions on the grant of degrees were a dead letter."[12]
In Brazil, a Bachelor's, Licenciate or Technologist degree is required in order to enter a graduate program, called pós-graduação. Generally, in order to be accepted, the candidate must have above average grades and it is highly recommended to be initiated on scientific research through government programs on undergraduate areas, as a complement to usual coursework.

Under the Bologna Process, countries in the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) are moving to a three cycle (bachelor's - master's - doctorate) system of degrees. Two thirds of EHEA countries have standardised on 120 ECTS credits for their second-cycle (master's) degrees, but 90 ECTS credits is the main form in Cyprus, Ireland and Scotland and 60-75 credits in Montenegro, Serbia and Spain.[77] The combined length of the first and second cycle varies from "3 + 1" years (240 ECTS credits), through "3 + 2" or "4 + 1" years (300 ECTS credits), to "4 + 2" years (360 ECTS credits). As of 2015, 31 EHEA countries have integrated programmes that combine the first and second cycle and lead to a second-cycle qualification (e.g. the UK integrated master's degree), particularly in STEM subjects and subjects allied to medicine. These typically have a duration of 300 – 360 ECTS credits (five to six years), with the integrated master's degrees in England, Wales and Northern Ireland being the shortest at 240 ECTS credits (four years).[78]
Integrated master's degrees (MChem, MEng, MMath, MPharm, MPhys, MPsych, MSci, etc.) are UK degrees that combine an undergraduate bachelor's degree course with an extra year at master's level (i.e. a total of four years in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and five years in Scotland). A 2011 survey of UK Higher Education Institutes found that 64% offered integrated master's course, mostly in STEM disciplines, with the most common degrees being MEng, MSci and MChem. 82% of respondents conferred only a master's degree for the course, while 9% conferred a bachelor's degree at the end of the bachelor's-level stage and a master's degree at the end of the course and a further 9% conferred both bachelor's and master's degrees at the end of the course.[56][57]

Often enough, terms like Master of Arts and Master of Sciences are abbreviated, and the rules on how to do it vary from one university and style guide to another. The academic title Master of Arts can be abbreviated as MA or M.A., and if the university in question is keen on Latin phrases, it may be abbreviated as AM or A.M., from the Latin Artium Magister.


In Australia, master's degrees vary from one year for a "research" or "coursework" master's following on from an Australian honours degree in a related field, with an extra six months if following on straight from an ordinary bachelor's degree and another extra six months if following on from a degree in a different field, to four years for an "extended" master's degree. At some Australian universities, the master's degree may take up to two years.[61]
The 21-credit Graduate Certificate in Business Analytics is designed to provide advanced coursework and experiential learning opportunities to students interested in careers that involve the application of statistical modeling, data warehousing, data mining, programming, forecasting and operations research techniques to the analysis of problems of business organization and performance.
There are 87 public universities in France, and also some private universities, and they are based upon the European education ladder including bachelors, Masters, and Ph.D.s. Students gain each degree though the successful completion of a predetermined number of years in education, gaining credits via the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS). There are over 300 doctoral programs that collaborate with 1200 research laboratories and centers. Each degree has a certain set of national diplomas that are all of equal value, irrespective of where they were issued. There are also other diplomas that are exclusive to France and are very hard to attain.

Gerontology refers to the study of aging, and also includes adult development. The existence of large numbers of individuals over the age of 65 is unprecedented in the history of humankind. In the next ten years, the number of older adults is expected to double in developed countries, and quadruple in the developing world. This growth will pose major challenges for societies in addressing the...

The MS non-thesis final exam will be administered each semester and students will complete their mock job interview during their second semester of enrollment. Students will register for their mock job interview via a registration web form and will select a preferred research division from which a faculty member will be assigned to conduct the interview. After the registration period closes, the student will receive a faculty assignment from the ECE Graduate Advisor. Each student will be responsible for emailing their assigned faculty member to set up a mock job interview. Interviews will need to be completed before the stated deadline for the semester.

For the next several years the doctoral candidate primarily performs his or her research. Usually this lasts three to eight years, though a few finish more quickly, and some take substantially longer. In total, the typical doctoral degree takes between four and eight years from entering the program to completion, though this time varies depending upon the department, dissertation topic, and many other factors. For example, astronomy degrees take five to six years on average, but observational astronomy degrees take six to seven due to limiting factors of weather, while theoretical astronomy degrees take five.


Graduate school, often referred to as grad school, is a college or university that offers advanced academic programs resulting in a master’s degree, doctorate degree or certificate. Most require students to already have completed a bachelor’s program and earned a minimum GPA. Many universities offer graduate programs, though the “graduate school” within the institution. The coursework in a grad school will be more advanced and focused as the goal of a graduate student is to concentrate their studies in a specific subject area and develop advanced knowledge and skills.

Most of the confusion with Australian postgraduate programmes occurs with the research-based programmes, particularly scientific programmes. Research degrees generally require candidates to have a minimum of a second-class four-year honours undergraduate degree to be considered for admission to a Ph.D. programme (M.Phil. are an uncommon route[24]). In science, a British first class honours (3 years) is not equivalent to an Australian first class honours (1 year research postgraduate programme that requires a completed undergraduate (pass) degree with a high grade-point average).[25] In scientific research, it is commonly accepted that an Australian postgraduate honours is equivalent to a British master's degree (in research). There has been some debate over the acceptance of a three-year honours degree (as in the case of graduates from British universities) as the equivalent entry requirement to graduate research programmes (M.Phil., Ph.D.) in Australian universities.[26] The letters of Honours programmes also added to the confusion. For example: B.Sc. (Hons) are the letters gained for postgraduate research honours at the University of Queensland. B.Sc. (Hons) does not indicate that this honours are postgraduate qualification. The difficulty also arises between different universities in Australia—some universities have followed the UK system.


Advanced Nursing Degrees at Nova Southeastern University – Offered Online!! Secure your career Change healthcare. Choose the best nursing program for you New technologies, New nursing responsibilities, New healthcare policies. There have been so many rapid changes within the healthcare field in recent years. The focus on evidence-based care is apparent. For instance, as of 2013, the American Nurses Association (ANA) requires 100% of nursing managers to hold a B.S.N. or higher to even qualify for their “Magnet” hospital designation.
In some countries such as Finland and Sweden, there is the degree of Licentiate, which is more advanced than a master's degree but less so than a Doctorate. Credits required are about half of those required for a doctoral degree.[10] Coursework requirements are the same as for a doctorate, but the extent of original research required is not as high as for doctorate.[11][12] Medical doctors for example are typically licentiates instead of doctors.
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