The traditional and most common way of obtaining a doctorate in Germany is by doing so individually under supervision of a single professor (Doktorvater or Doktormutter) without any formal curriculum. During their studies, doctoral students are enrolled at university while often being employed simultaneously either at the university itself, at a research institute or at a company as a researcher.[5] Working in research during doctoral studies is, however, not a formal requirement.
Graduate students must usually declare their research goal or submit a research proposal upon entering grad school; in the case of master's degrees, there will be some flexibility (that is, one is not held to one's research proposal, although major changes, for example from premodern to modern history, are discouraged). In the case of Ph.D.s, the research direction is usually known as it will typically follow the direction of the master's research.
In 1900, Dartmouth College introduced the Master of Commercial Science (MCS), first awarded in 1902. This was the first master's degree in business, the forerunner of the modern MBA.[33] The idea quickly crossed the Atlantic, with Manchester establishing a Faculty of Commerce, awarding Bachelor and Master of Commerce degrees, in 1903.[34] Over the first half of the century the automatic master's degrees for honours graduates vanished as honours degrees became the standard undergraduate qualification in the UK. In the 1960s, new Scottish universities (with the exception of Dundee, which inherited the undergraduate MA from St Andrews) reintroduced the BA as their undergraduate degree in Arts, restoring the MA to its position as a postgraduate qualification. Oxford and Cambridge retained their MAs, but renamed many of their postgraduate bachelor's degrees in the higher faculties as master's degrees, e.g. the Cambridge LLB became the LLM in 1982,[35] and the Oxford BLitt, BPhil (except in philosophy) and BSc became the MLitt, MPhil and MSc.[36]
With the establishment of Graduiertenkollegs funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), the German Research Foundation, in the early 1990s, the concept of a graduate school was introduced to the German higher education system. Unlike the American model of graduate schools, only doctoral students participate in a Graduiertenkolleg. In contrast to the traditional German model of doctoral studies, a Graduiertenkolleg aims to provide young researchers with a structured doctoral training under supervision of a team of professors within an excellent research environment. A Graduiertenkolleg typically consists of 20-30 doctoral students, about half of whom are supported by stipends from the DFG or another sponsor. The research programme is usually narrowly defined around a specific topic and has an interdisciplinary aspect. The programme is set up for a specific period of time (up to nine years if funded by the DFG). The official English translation of the term Graduiertenkolleg is Research Training Group.
Human development and family studies offers graduate work leading to master of science and doctor of philosophy degrees. Graduate programs take a multidisciplinary approach, preparing students for college and university teaching and research, as well as development, administration, and evaluation of programs serving individuals and families across the lifespan.
The field of robotics has grown significantly in the last decade and continues to do so at an accelerating rate.  Robots were, until very recently, in the hands of a few specialists, but are increasingly moving into the mainstream.  Household robots, prosthetic limbs, robotic cars, assistive care robots, and search and rescue robots are all becoming a part of our lives. Robots for exploration...
So, how can students determine which graduate program is right for them? What career options might be best? Because of the huge range of degree options and specialty areas, picking the one that right for you can feel overwhelming. Spending some time researching different career paths can help you decide which career path is suited to your needs, interests, and educational background.

At English-speaking Canadian universities, both master's and Ph.D. theses may be presented in English or in the language of the subject (German for German literature, for example), but if this is the case an extensive abstract must be also presented in English. In exceptional circumstances, a thesis may be presented in French.[citation needed] The exception to this rule is McGill University, where all work can be submitted in either English or French, unless the purpose of the course of study is acquisition of a language.[29]
Graduate study at the Institute is divided further into several graduate options, which are supervised by those faculty whose interests and research are closely related to the area of the option. Entering graduate students are admitted into one of the following options working towards a specific degree.  Almost all options offer the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), and a few options will admit students to a terminal Master's (MS).  In all other options, the Master's degree is awarded under special circumstances only.  Please check the departmental websites and/or the Institute Catalog for a list of the degrees offered.
The interdisciplinary problems posed by natural and human induced changes in the earth's environment are among the most interesting, difficult, and important facing today's scientists and engineers. The environmental science and engineering option is an interdivisional program of study by biologists, chemists, earth scientists, engineers, and physicists to investigate the functioning of and interactions among the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere.
An online BSN-to-MSN appeals to nurses seeking career advancement who prefer the flexibility of an online learning format. Applicants to BSN-to-MSN programs must hold a current, valid RN license, provide proof of a bachelor of science in nursing, and meet the program's GPA minimum. Many programs also ask for letters of recommendation, a resume, and a statement of purpose. After entering the MSN program, nursing students complete coursework in their specialization and meet clinical requirements.
Forensic psychology involves applying psychology to the field of criminal investigation and law. Forensic psychologists typically have a master's in forensic psychology at the minimum, but many hold a PhD in clinical or counseling psychology. Forensic psychologists may work in various settings, including family courts, drug courts, criminal courts, or private consulting.

In some European countries, a magister is a first degree and may be considered equivalent to a modern (standardized) master's degree (e.g., the German, Austrian and Polish university Diplom/Magister, or the similar five-year Diploma awarded in several subjects in Greek,[76] Spanish, Portuguese, and other universities and polytechnics).[clarification needed]


A research-based master’s degree program at the Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering is available for Indiana University School of Medicine medical students seeking to earn both MD and MS BME degrees. The seamless integration of the timelines for the two degrees allows these students to complete both degrees in five years. The MS BME/MD program leverages the students’ clinical training and medical school coursework to advance innovative engineering solutions for challenges in healthcare delivery. Significant areas for translational research projects include implantable medical devices, engineered tissues and biomaterials, point-of-care diagnostics, advanced medical imaging, and systems engineering of healthcare delivery. Students earning this degree gain firsthand knowledge of medical technology innovation and strategies for clinical translation. They will strengthen their ability to pursue medical research, to facilitate clinical testing of new therapies, and to collaborate effectively with the biomedical industry.
Each student is responsible for applying for his/her degree by the published deadlines for the semester of graduation. The degree application is available online via ONE UF. Students are also required to meet with the Graduate Advisor in the Student Services Office at the beginning of the semester that they intend to graduate to ensure that all degree requirements have been met. If a student fails to apply by the specified deadline, s/he will not receive the degree that semester.
Graduate School USA (GSUSA) recently applied for accreditation with the Accrediting Council for Continuing Education and Training (ACCET). In pursuit of the accreditation, GSUSA will be amending our Evening and Weekend Programs curriculum to ensure consistency and compliance with ACCET requirements. As we make these transformations, we are discontinuing Evening and Weekend Programs, as of June 24, 2019.
The Sustainable Forest Management  graduate program emphasizes the conservation of forest-dominated landscapes to meet a defined set of ecological, economic and social criteria over long time frames. The program follows the sustainable principles outlined by the Montreal Process Criteria and Indicators. These principles have been adopted by the state of Oregon.
This is a student's guide to hundreds of the most popular master's degree programs in the United States. Each of these articles provides specific information about a unique master's degree program such as required coursework and the occupational outlook. Please choose a field of study to find a more focused selection of master's degree program articles.
Master of Arts in History Master of Arts in International Relations Online Master of Arts in Military History Master of Business Administration - Project Management Master of Business Administration - Energy Management Master of Business Administration - Supply Chain Management and Logistics Master of Business Administration - Finance Master of Business Administration - General Master of Business Administration - Organizational Leadership Master of Public Administration – Public Works and Sustainability Concentration Master of Public Administration – Fiscal Management Concentration Master of Public Administration – Organizational Leadership Master of Public Administration – Leadership and Crisis Management Master of Public Administration – Criminal Justice and Public Safety Concentration Master of Civil Engineering Master of Science in Nursing - Nursing Administration Master of Public Administration - General Master of Science in Nursing - Nursing Educator Master of Science in Leadership Master of Civil Engineering - Construction Management Master of Civil Engineering - Structural Engineering Master of Civil Engineering - Geotechnical Engineering Master of Civil Engineering - Environmental/Water Resources Engineering Master of Public Administration – Municipal Governance Master of Public Administration – Nonprofit Management Concentration

This graduate program is designed to take advantage of the previous experience of the incoming student. Research is undertaken with a faculty member of the student's choosing. Each student determines his or her course program with the assistance of a faculty advisor and committee. A coursework distribution augments technical skills, and it provides a broad, yet firm, background in advanced...


Master of Science in Communications Executive Master of Public Administration Masters of Business Administration Master’s in Applied Data Science Master of Science in Accounting Master of Science in Information Management Master of Science in Computer Science Master of Science in Computer Engineering Master’s in Library Science Master of Science in Cybersecurity Master of Science in Business Analytics
The graduate certificate in public health online program at Oregon State University is designed for public health practitioners and others seeking professional development and continuing education within the field of public health. The program focuses on the five core areas of public health: epidemiology, biostatistics, health promotion and behavior, environmental and occupational health, and...
In Italy the master's degree is equivalent to the two-year Laurea magistrale, which can be earned after a Laurea (a three-year undergraduate degree, equivalent to a bachelor's degree). In particular fields, namely law, pharmacy and medicine, this distinction is not made. University courses are therefore single and last five to six years, after which the master's degree is awarded (in this case referred to as Laurea magistrale a ciclo unico). The old Laurea degree (Vecchio Ordinamento, Old Regulations), which was the only awarded in Italy before the Bologna process, is equivalent[83] to the current Laurea Magistrale.
The master’s degree in elementary education at Emporia State is designed for career changers who are interested in teaching elementary school. With online courses and a clinical experience placement near you, you can earn a master’s degree without changing locations. In as little as two years, you will be eligible for an elementary education teaching license. When you finish your degree, you will enter the teaching profession at the master’s degree level on the pay scale. A background in the education field is not required.
The 21-credit Graduate Certificate in Business Analytics is designed to provide advanced coursework and experiential learning opportunities to students interested in careers that involve the application of statistical modeling, data warehousing, data mining, programming, forecasting and operations research techniques to the analysis of problems of business organization and performance.
It's essential for prospective students to search for online master's degree programs that are accredited. An accredited master's degree program has gone through a rigorous process to verify that it provides quality education to students. Enrolling in an accredited master's degree program is a critical first step in helping a student qualify for financial aid. Having a degree from an accredited online or traditional institution can also make a candidate more competitive in the job market.
MA, Leadership: Organizational Leadership Specialization MBA, Sports Management Specialization MBA, Chief School Business Official Specialization MBA, Not-for-Profit Management Specialization MBA, Leadership and Change Management Specialization MBA, School Business Management Specialization MBA, Entrepreneurship Specialization The Concordia University Chicago Core MBA MBA, Digital Marketing Specialization MBA, Health Care Management Specialization MBA, Accounting Specialization MBA, Finance Specialization MA, Innovation and Entrepreneurship
An MSN helps nurses advance their careers and increase their earning potential. During an MSN program, nursing students build valuable clinical skills while completing core nursing classes and specialization coursework. Common MSN classes include advanced health assessment, advanced pharmacology, and nursing research. Within a specialization, MSN students complete additional coursework and clinical hours to become a nurse practitioner, nurse midwife, or another advanced practice registered nurse.
Prior to 2004, when the European system of LMD Bologna process was founded, the French equivalent of a Post Graduate degree was called a "Maitrise." For historical reasons dating back to the French Revolution of 1789, France has a dual education system, with Grandes Écoles on one side, and universities on the other hand, with the Grandes Écoles being considered as much more prestigious. Some Grandes écoles deliver the French diplôme d'ingénieur, which is ranked as a master's degree.
Agricultural Education offers course work that serves teachers and leaders in agriculture. The M.S. and M.A.I.S. degrees may be pursued with an emphasis in leadership, communication, pedagogy, extension and/or technical agriculture. Candidates work with an adviser to develop programs that meet their specific needs as indicated by their occupational objectives.
Gerontology refers to the study of aging, and also includes adult development. The existence of large numbers of individuals over the age of 65 is unprecedented in the history of humankind. In the next ten years, the number of older adults is expected to double in developed countries, and quadruple in the developing world. This growth will pose major challenges for societies in addressing the...

The Australian government usually offer full funding (fees and a monthly stipend) to its citizens and permanent residents who are pursuing research-based higher degrees. There are also highly competitive scholarships for international candidates who intend to pursue research-based programmes. Taught-degree scholarships (certain master's degrees, Grad. Dip., Grad. Cert., D.Eng., D.B.A.) are almost non-existent for international students, so they are usually required to be self-funded.
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