The Australian government usually offer full funding (fees and a monthly stipend) to its citizens and permanent residents who are pursuing research-based higher degrees. There are also highly competitive scholarships for international candidates who intend to pursue research-based programmes. Taught-degree scholarships (certain master's degrees, Grad. Dip., Grad. Cert., D.Eng., D.B.A.) are almost non-existent for international students, so they are usually required to be self-funded.
The Mechanical Engineering (ME) profession is dedicated to applying principles of physics, chemistry, biology and mathematics in the analysis, design, manufacturing and maintenance of mechanical components, devices, and systems.  Oregon State's graduate program in ME is designed to educate leaders who will develop and improve systems for transforming energy, health, materials, and information...
The microbiology program provides graduate training leading towards Ph.D. and M.S. degrees. This program supports broad interests in microbiology, including environmental and pathogenic microbiology, with studies that encompass a spectrum of approaches from the ecological and organismal to the molecular genetic and biochemical. Faculty from several colleges and departments participate as major...
Graduate students in the Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences enter with diverse undergraduate preparation—majors in astronomy, biology, chemistry, mathematics, and physics, as well as in geochemistry, geology, and geophysics. Graduate study and research within the division are equally diverse, and the graduate program aims to provide for students a depth of competence and experience in their major field, sufficient strength in the basic sciences to allow them to continue self-education after their formal training has been completed, and the motivation and training to keep them in the forefront of their field through a long and productive career. Students are encouraged to explore work in interdisciplinary areas both within and outside the division, and to gain experience in teaching.

Currently, the department is concentrated primarily on earthquake engineering, a field in which Caltech researchers have been important contributors since the 1920's. Research is currently being conducted in areas such as seismic early warning, characterization of near-source motion in earthquakes, soil-structure interaction, nonlinear finite element analysis of civil structures, structural health monitoring and earthquake loss-estimation.
Graduate students must usually declare their research goal or submit a research proposal upon entering grad school; in the case of master's degrees, there will be some flexibility (that is, one is not held to one's research proposal, although major changes, for example from premodern to modern history, are discouraged). In the case of Ph.D.s, the research direction is usually known as it will typically follow the direction of the master's research.
The MS non-thesis final exam will be administered each semester and students will complete their mock job interview during their second semester of enrollment. Students will register for their mock job interview via a registration web form and will select a preferred research division from which a faculty member will be assigned to conduct the interview. After the registration period closes, the student will receive a faculty assignment from the ECE Graduate Advisor. Each student will be responsible for emailing their assigned faculty member to set up a mock job interview. Interviews will need to be completed before the stated deadline for the semester.

The most common type of doctoral degree is the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D), which generally includes several years of coursework followed by the completion of a dissertation. The Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) is also well-known, and generally includes residencies and internships. Another popular graduate degree is the Juris Doctor (J.D.), which is a professional doctorate in law. A J.D. is required to practice law in the U.S. and many other countries.


For the next several years the doctoral candidate primarily performs his or her research. Usually this lasts three to eight years, though a few finish more quickly, and some take substantially longer. In total, the typical doctoral degree takes between four and eight years from entering the program to completion, though this time varies depending upon the department, dissertation topic, and many other factors. For example, astronomy degrees take five to six years on average, but observational astronomy degrees take six to seven due to limiting factors of weather, while theoretical astronomy degrees take five.
Traditionally, doctoral programs were only intended to last three to four years, and in some disciplines (primarily the natural sciences), with a helpful advisor and a light teaching load, it is possible for the degree to be completed in that amount of time. However, increasingly many disciplines, including most humanities, set their requirements for coursework, languages, and the expected extent of dissertation research by the assumption that students will take five years minimum or six to seven years on average; competition for jobs within these fields also raises expectations on the length and quality of dissertations considerably.
The graduate certificate in Water Conflict Management and Transformation is an 18-credit interdisciplinary program. It is designed to provide graduate students, non-degree students, water professionals and decision-makers with the required specialized resources and skills to address the water demands and challenges of the 21st Century, in Oregon, across the United States and...
At the start of the twentieth century there were therefore four different sorts of master's degree in the UK: the Scottish MA, granted as a first degree; the Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin), granted to all BA graduates a certain period after their first degree without further study; master's degrees that could be gained either by further study or by gaining an honours degree (which, at the time in the UK involved further study beyond the ordinary degree, as it still does in Scotland and some Commonwealth countries); and master's degrees that could only be obtained by further study (including all London master's degrees). In 1903, the London Daily News criticised the practice of Oxford and Cambridge, calling their MAs "the most stupendous of academic frauds" and "bogus degrees".[30] Ensuing correspondence pointed out that "A Scotch M.A., at the most, is only the equivalent of an English B.A." and called for common standards for degrees, while defenders of the ancient universities said that "the Cambridge M.A. does not pretend to be a reward of learning" and that "it is rather absurd to describe one of their degrees as a bogus one because other modern Universities grant the same degree for different reasons".[31][32]
This program prepares students for careers in scientific research or research combined with teaching, and so its most important part is independent research. Courses are offered that give a broad treatment of both fundamental physics and specialized physics research topics. These are intended both to help a beginning graduate student prepare for research and to broaden an advanced student’s knowledge of physics. Caltech research opportunities include elementary particle physics, nuclear physics, cosmic-ray, gamma-ray, and X-ray astronomy, sub-millimetetronomy, condensed-matter physics, atomic/molecular/optical physics, quantum optics, applied physics, gravitational physics, cosmology, astrophysics, mathematical physics, biophysics, and theoretical physics.

Postgraduate degrees are more focused than undergraduate degrees, with classes centered around a specific field of study. Seeking a master's degree requires one to three years of additional study, while a doctoral degree requires four to six years. Some colleges offer both undergraduate and graduate degree paths, while other colleges only offer one or the other.


Generally, the Australian higher education system[23] follows that of its British counterpart (with some notable exceptions). Entrance is decided by merit, entrance to coursework-based programmes is usually not as strict; most universities usually require a "Credit" average as entry to their taught programmes in a field related to their previous undergraduate. On average, however, a strong "Credit" or "Distinction" average is the norm for accepted students. Not all coursework programs require the student to already possess the relevant undergraduate degree, they are intended as "conversion" or professional qualification programs, and merely any relevant undergraduate degree with good grades is required.
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