With the establishment of Graduiertenkollegs funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), the German Research Foundation, in the early 1990s, the concept of a graduate school was introduced to the German higher education system. Unlike the American model of graduate schools, only doctoral students participate in a Graduiertenkolleg. In contrast to the traditional German model of doctoral studies, a Graduiertenkolleg aims to provide young researchers with a structured doctoral training under supervision of a team of professors within an excellent research environment. A Graduiertenkolleg typically consists of 20-30 doctoral students, about half of whom are supported by stipends from the DFG or another sponsor. The research programme is usually narrowly defined around a specific topic and has an interdisciplinary aspect. The programme is set up for a specific period of time (up to nine years if funded by the DFG). The official English translation of the term Graduiertenkolleg is Research Training Group.
The combined BS/MS is a special program for outstanding current Weldon School undergraduates who have established research relationships with faculty members. This program was created to provide further training to undergraduates who have been conducting research in the labs of our faculty and who strongly desire to continue their research toward an MS or PhD degree. The ultimate plan of study is intended to prepare students for PhD level graduate studies or research-oriented industry positions. The proposed program enables students to complete the BS and the MS in a total of five, rather than the typical six, years.
The Institute of Medicine’s “Vison 2020” recommends all clinical nurses hold a B.S.N., and the ACN backs their recommendation. This means that top healthcare organizations aren’t considering hiring clinical nurses without at least the B.S.N. credential. Advanced nursing roles call for a master’s or doctorate-level degree. Like many things over time, the nursing industry has expanded beyond the skills and knowledge an R.N. credential alone provides. To maintain a lifelong nursing career, or to work in one of the many new nursing positions, you need an advanced nursing degree.Nursing Degree Options.If you’re wondering what program is best for you, think about the responsibilities you enjoy as a nurse as well as what you’re naturally interested in learning.
The 18-credit Graduate Certificate in Business Fundamentals is designed for professionals who do not have formal business training and are seeking to advance into management and other leadership positions. Students study the fundamentals of finance, accounting, marketing, law, and operations to understand how all enterprises bring value to their customers, employees, and owners.
Programs are entirely in English and tuition is less than would be paid in North America, with as little as US$5000 for an M.B.A.[citation needed] As an incentive to increase the number of foreign students, the government of Taiwan and universities have made extra efforts to provide a range of quality scholarships available.[citation needed] These are university-specific scholarships ranging from tuition waivers, up to NT$20,000 per month. The government offers the Taiwan Scholarship ranging from NT$20,000–30,000 per month for two years. (US$18,000–24,000 for a two-year program)

This concentration is built around advanced study of your primary instrument, along with courses in music history, music theory, and introductory research. In addition to private studio instruction, you also receive training in the pedagogy of your specific instrument. A graduate recital is required as the culminating capstone experience. Specializations include instrumental or vocal concentrations. Offered on campus.
In some fields, research positions are more coveted than teaching positions because student researchers are typically paid to work on the dissertation they are required to complete anyway, while teaching is generally considered a distraction from one's work. Research positions are more typical of science disciplines; they are relatively uncommon in humanities disciplines, and where they exist, they rarely allow the student to work on their own research.
Oregon State University's Applied Economics Graduate Program offers M.S., M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in Applied Economics. The curricula provide, at both master’s and doctoral levels: (i) a foundation of rigorous core courses in economic theory, econometrics, and other quantitative methods; and (ii) areas of concentration in resource and environmental economics, trade and development, and other...
^ C. E. Whiting (29 June 1937). "Durham University Centenary". Yorkshire Post. Retrieved 8 August 2016 – via British Newspaper Archive. The M.A. degree at Oxford and Cambridge had degenerated, and was granted to Bachelors of three years' standing on the payment of certain fees. At Durham the B.A. had to keep residence for three extra terms, and to pass what seems have been an honours examination in order to proceed to the Master's degree, and for a number of years classes were awarded in the M.A. examination.

Ph.D. entrance requirements in the higher ranked schools typically require a student to have postgraduate research honours or a master's degree by research, or a master's with a significant research component. Entry requirements depend on the subject studied and the individual university. The minimum duration of a Ph.D. programme is two years, but completing within this time span is unusual, with Ph.D.s usually taking an average of three to four years to be completed.

In Italy the master's degree is equivalent to the two-year Laurea magistrale, which can be earned after a Laurea (a three-year undergraduate degree, equivalent to a bachelor's degree). In particular fields, namely law, pharmacy and medicine, this distinction is not made. University courses are therefore single and last five to six years, after which the master's degree is awarded (in this case referred to as Laurea magistrale a ciclo unico). The old Laurea degree (Vecchio Ordinamento, Old Regulations), which was the only awarded in Italy before the Bologna process, is equivalent[83] to the current Laurea Magistrale.
In the Overarching Framework of Qualifications for the European Higher Education Area defined as part of the Bologna process, a "second cycle" (i.e. master's degree) programme is typically 90–120 ECTS credits, with a minimum requirement of at least 60 ECTS credits at second-cycle level.[67] The definition of ECTS credits is that "60 ECTS credits are allocated to the learning outcomes and associated workload of a full-time academic year or its equivalent",[68] thus European master's degrees should last for between one calendar year and two academic years, with at least one academic year of study at master's level. The Framework for Higher Education Qualification (FHEQ) in England Wales and Northern Ireland level 7 qualifications and the Framework for Qualification of Higher Education Institutes in Scotland (FQHEIS) level 11 qualifications (postgraduate and integrated master's degrees, with the exception of MAs from the ancient universities of Scotland and Oxbridge MAs) have been certified as meeting this requirement.[69][70]
For the next several years, the doctoral candidate primarily performs his or her research. Usually this lasts three to eight years, though a few finish more quickly and some take substantially longer. In total, the typical doctoral degree takes between four and eight years from entering the program to completion though this time varies depending upon the department, thesis topic, and many other factors.
Master of Business Administration Master of Arts in Communication Master of Arts in Educational Leadership Online Master of Health Administration Master of Business Administration - Healthcare Master of Arts in Communication - Integrated Digital Strategy Concentration Master of Business Administration - Finance Master of Science in Nursing – Clinical Nurse Leader
The écoles doctorales ("Doctoral schools") are educational structures similar in focus to graduate schools, but restricted at PhD level. These schools have the responsibilities of providing students with a structured doctoral training in a disciplinary field. The field of the school is related to the strength of the university: while some have two or three schools (typically "Arts and Humanities" and "Natural and Technological Sciences"), others have more specialized schools (History, Aeronautics, etc.).
Setting GALCIT apart from others are our unrivaled experimental facilities in fluids, solids, materials, biomechanics, propulsion, and combustion; our exceptional faculty; our rigorous graduate student training; and our emphasis on the basics. We also maintain close connections to industry and government labs. An extremely broad range of research is done by the professors in GALCIT, their colleagues, and students. The GALCIT faculty maintain strong connections with colleagues throughout the Division, the Institute, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Our faculty collaborate with colleagues from Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Applied Physics and Materials Science, Computing and Mathematical Sciences, Bioengineering, Geology and Planetary Sciences, and JPL. Research in Biological Fluid Dynamics is carried out by GALCIT faculty and colleagues throughout Caltech.
The nineteenth century saw a great expansion in the variety of master's degrees offered. At the start of the century, the only master's degree was the MA, and this was normally awarded without any further study or examination. The Master in Surgery degree was introduced by the University of Glasgow in 1815.[8] By 1861 this had been adopted throughout Scotland as well as by Cambridge and Durham in England and the University of Dublin in Ireland.[9] When the Philadelphia College of Surgeons was established in 1870, it too conferred the Master of Surgery, "the same as that in Europe".[10]
Funding differs greatly by departments and universities; some universities give five years of full funding to all Ph.D. students, though often with a teaching requirement attached; other universities do not. However, because of the teaching requirements, which can be in the research years of the Ph.D., even the best funded universities often do not have funding for humanities or social science students who need to do research elsewhere, whether in the United States or overseas.[citation needed] Such students may find funding through outside funders such as private foundations, such as the German Marshall Fund or the Social Science Research Council (SSRC).

During an RN-to-MSN program, nursing students complete BSN-level coursework to qualify for the MSN program. After meeting the coursework requirements, nursing students choose an MSN specialization and take graduate-level classes in their field. MSN students must also meet clinical requirements, usually 200 clinical hours in their specialization, to build hands-on experience.
The field of robotics has grown significantly in the last decade and continues to do so at an accelerating rate.  Robots were, until very recently, in the hands of a few specialists, but are increasingly moving into the mainstream.  Household robots, prosthetic limbs, robotic cars, assistive care robots, and search and rescue robots are all becoming a part of our lives. Robots for exploration...
The master’s program in the Department of Biological Sciences is designed to qualify persons for continued graduate work at the doctoral level; for teaching biology in high schools, community colleges, and liberal arts colleges; and for employment in various fields of biology, including certain fields of applied biology. This program is available on campus and offers concentrations in Botany, Ecology and Biodiversity, General Biology, Microbial and Cellular Biology, and Zoology.

Art Therapy offers several advantages verbal therapy cannot. Through the creation of art, one can express thoughts, feelings, and conflicts that cannot be easily expressed through words. At ESU, you can choose to study for an MS in Art Therapy or select one of our two dual degree programs, combining Art Therapy with Clinical Counseling or Clinical Psychology.
Under the Bologna Process, countries in the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) are moving to a three cycle (bachelor's - master's - doctorate) system of degrees. Two thirds of EHEA countries have standardised on 120 ECTS credits for their second-cycle (master's) degrees, but 90 ECTS credits is the main form in Cyprus, Ireland and Scotland and 60-75 credits in Montenegro, Serbia and Spain.[77] The combined length of the first and second cycle varies from "3 + 1" years (240 ECTS credits), through "3 + 2" or "4 + 1" years (300 ECTS credits), to "4 + 2" years (360 ECTS credits). As of 2015, 31 EHEA countries have integrated programmes that combine the first and second cycle and lead to a second-cycle qualification (e.g. the UK integrated master's degree), particularly in STEM subjects and subjects allied to medicine. These typically have a duration of 300 – 360 ECTS credits (five to six years), with the integrated master's degrees in England, Wales and Northern Ireland being the shortest at 240 ECTS credits (four years).[78]
The graduate certificate in public health online program at Oregon State University is designed for public health practitioners and others seeking professional development and continuing education within the field of public health. The program focuses on the five core areas of public health: epidemiology, biostatistics, health promotion and behavior, environmental and occupational health, and...
Nurses who choose an online ASN-to-MSN program often continue working while earning their degree. Many programs offer flexible schedules, including asynchronous courses with no set login times. Nursing students can choose a full- or part-time option, depending on the program. Some programs also offer accelerated options, in which nurses with an ASN complete their MSN within two years.
Upon completion of at least two years' research and coursework as a postgraduate student, a candidate must demonstrate truthful and original contributions to his or her specific field of knowledge within a frame of academic excellence.[17] The Master and Doctoral candidate's work should be presented in a dissertation or thesis prepared under the supervision of a tutor or director, and reviewed by a postgraduate Committee. This Committee should be composed of examiners external to the program, and at least one of them should also be external to the institution.[18]
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