In France, the master's degree (diplôme de master) takes two years and is worth 120 ECTS credits.[80] The French master's degree is the combination of two individual years : the master 1 (M1) and master 2 (M2), following the Bologna Process. Depending on the goal of the student (a doctorate or a professional career) the master 2 can also be called a "Master Recherche" (research master) and a "Master Professionnel" (professional master), each with different requirements. To obtain a national diploma for the master 2 requires a minimum of one year of study after the master 1.
This concentration is grounded in the recreational, cultural, informational, and educational needs of 21st century youth from birth through the teen years. Students study the selection of a broad range of resources in all media formats to reflect awareness of, and sensitivity to, the social and cultural needs of all youth and the design of reader’s advisory services, library programs, and literacy activities in public and school library settings.
Higher Education, M.S.Ed. Education, Culture, and Society, M.S.Ed. Teaching, Learning, and Learning, M.S.Ed. Reading/Writing/Literacy, M.S.Ed. Policy, Master of Science (M.S.) in Statistics, Measurement, Assessment, and Research Technology (SM Counseling and Mental Health Services Executive Program in School and Mental Health Counseling Quantitative Methods School Leadership Microbiology, Virology, and Parasitology Environmental Studies MBA/MA in International Studies Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages - TESOL History - Master Intercultural Communication Landscape Architecture - Master Language and Literacy - Master Master of Biotechnology Learning Science and Technologies Interdisciplinary Studies in Human Development - Master Graduate Group in Electrical Engineering - Master Mathematics - Master Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics - Master Teacher Education: Secondary Comparative Physiology
Many graduate programs require students to pass one or several examinations in order to demonstrate their competence as scholars.[6] In some departments, a comprehensive examination is often required in the first year of doctoral study, and is designed to test a student's background undergraduate-level knowledge. Examinations of this type are more common in the sciences and some social sciences but relatively unknown in most humanities disciplines.

The University of Scranton has grounded its education in Catholic and Jesuit principles based on intellectual growth and integrity, all of which shape the online master’s and certificate programs. You can choose one of six degree programs from a selective institution ranked among the top 10 master’s universities in the North by U.S. News & World Report.


In France, the master's degree (diplôme de master) takes two years and is worth 120 ECTS credits.[80] The French master's degree is the combination of two individual years : the master 1 (M1) and master 2 (M2), following the Bologna Process. Depending on the goal of the student (a doctorate or a professional career) the master 2 can also be called a "Master Recherche" (research master) and a "Master Professionnel" (professional master), each with different requirements. To obtain a national diploma for the master 2 requires a minimum of one year of study after the master 1.

In some European countries, a magister is a first degree and may be considered equivalent to a modern (standardized) master's degree (e.g., the German, Austrian and Polish university Diplom/Magister, or the similar five-year Diploma awarded in several subjects in Greek,[76] Spanish, Portuguese, and other universities and polytechnics).[clarification needed]

Master's candidates undertaking research are typically required to complete a thesis comprising some original research and ranging from seventy to two-hundred pages. Some fields may require candidates to study at least one foreign language if they have not already earned sufficient foreign-language credits. Some faculties require candidates to defend their thesis, but many do not. Those that do not often have a requirement of taking two additional courses, minimum, in lieu of preparing a thesis.
At the start of the twentieth century there were therefore four different sorts of master's degree in the UK: the Scottish MA, granted as a first degree; the Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin), granted to all BA graduates a certain period after their first degree without further study; master's degrees that could be gained either by further study or by gaining an honours degree (which, at the time in the UK involved further study beyond the ordinary degree, as it still does in Scotland and some Commonwealth countries); and master's degrees that could only be obtained by further study (including all London master's degrees). In 1903, the London Daily News criticised the practice of Oxford and Cambridge, calling their MAs "the most stupendous of academic frauds" and "bogus degrees".[30] Ensuing correspondence pointed out that "A Scotch M.A., at the most, is only the equivalent of an English B.A." and called for common standards for degrees, while defenders of the ancient universities said that "the Cambridge M.A. does not pretend to be a reward of learning" and that "it is rather absurd to describe one of their degrees as a bogus one because other modern Universities grant the same degree for different reasons".[31][32]
Under the Bologna Process, countries in the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) are moving to a three cycle (bachelor's - master's - doctorate) system of degrees. Two thirds of EHEA countries have standardised on 120 ECTS credits for their second-cycle (master's) degrees, but 90 ECTS credits is the main form in Cyprus, Ireland and Scotland and 60-75 credits in Montenegro, Serbia and Spain.[77] The combined length of the first and second cycle varies from "3 + 1" years (240 ECTS credits), through "3 + 2" or "4 + 1" years (300 ECTS credits), to "4 + 2" years (360 ECTS credits). As of 2015, 31 EHEA countries have integrated programmes that combine the first and second cycle and lead to a second-cycle qualification (e.g. the UK integrated master's degree), particularly in STEM subjects and subjects allied to medicine. These typically have a duration of 300 – 360 ECTS credits (five to six years), with the integrated master's degrees in England, Wales and Northern Ireland being the shortest at 240 ECTS credits (four years).[78]

Graduate students often declare their intended degree (master's or doctorate) in their applications. In some cases, master's programs allow successful students to continue toward the doctorate degree. Additionally, doctoral students who have advanced to candidacy but not filed a dissertation ("ABD", for "all but dissertation") often receive master's degrees and an additional master's called a Master of Philosophy (MPhil) or a Candidate of Philosophy (C.Phil.) degree. The master's component of a doctorate program often requires one or two years.
It is imperative that copies of the student’s thesis be given to the supervisory committee at least two weeks in advance of the final examination. Graduation may be delayed for those who do not adhere to this rule. The Student Services Office should be informed of the examination one week prior to the thesis defense date in order to process the Final Exam Report form and send out notices. Students are also required to complete an Exit Survey during the semester they plan to graduate. Students can find more information about the Exit Survey in the Student Services Office.
Online programs offer flexible options like asynchronous classes with no set login times. Working nurses often struggle to attend set class times because of their varying schedules. Furthermore, rather than remaining limited to local nursing schools, as with a traditional program, online students enroll in top programs across the country without relocating.
This program prepares students for careers in scientific research or research combined with teaching, and so its most important part is independent research. Courses are offered that give a broad treatment of both fundamental physics and specialized physics research topics. These are intended both to help a beginning graduate student prepare for research and to broaden an advanced student’s knowledge of physics. Caltech research opportunities include elementary particle physics, nuclear physics, cosmic-ray, gamma-ray, and X-ray astronomy, sub-millimetetronomy, condensed-matter physics, atomic/molecular/optical physics, quantum optics, applied physics, gravitational physics, cosmology, astrophysics, mathematical physics, biophysics, and theoretical physics.
Upon completion of this concentration students are highly marketable and are likely to obtain positions that require geospatial analyses, ranging from environmental positions to military intelligence and private consulting. Graduates work in areas as diverse as environmental organizations to the oil and minerals industry, utility and transportation companies, spatial network management, and other fields. Offered online or on campus.
Master of Science is generally abbreviated M.S. or MS in countries following United States usage and MSc in countries following British usage, where MS would refer to the degree of Master of Surgery. In Australia, some extended master's degrees use the title "doctor": Juris doctor and Doctors of Medical Practice, Physiotherapy, Dentistry, Optometry and Veterinary Practice. Despite their titles these are still master's degree and may not be referred to as doctoral degrees, nor may graduates use the title "doctor".[55]
Purdue University administers its largest and most comprehensive campus in West Lafayette, Indiana, home to the Purdue University Graduate School. The Graduate School oversees more than 130 graduate programs at the West Lafayette campus, including exciting interdisciplinary graduate programs and a variety of certificate programs.  Browse the programs below to see which one best fits your interest!

The graduate program in chemistry emphasizes research. This emphasis reflects the Institute’s traditional leadership in chemical research and the conviction that has permeated the Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering from its founding, that participation in original research is the best way to awaken, develop, and give direction to creativity.  Soon after a new graduate student arrives in the laboratories, he or she attends a series of orientation seminars that introduce students to the active research interests of the staff. Students then talk in detail with each of several staff members whose fields attract them, eventually settle upon the outlines of a research problem that interests them, and begin research upon it early in the first year. Students can elect to do research that crosses the boundaries of traditionally separate areas of chemistry, for in this relatively compact division, they are encouraged to go where their scientific curiosity drives them. A thesis that involves more than one adviser is not uncommon, and interdisciplinary programs with biology, physics, geology, chemical engineering, and environmental science and engineering science are open and encouraged.  An extensive program of seminars will enable students to hear of and discuss notable work in chemical physics, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry and electrochemistry, organometallic chemistry, and biochemistry and molecular biophysics. Graduate students are also encouraged to attend seminars in other divisions.


Master of Science in Communications Executive Master of Public Administration Masters of Business Administration Master’s in Applied Data Science Master of Science in Accounting Master of Science in Information Management Master of Science in Computer Science Master of Science in Computer Engineering Master’s in Library Science Master of Science in Cybersecurity Master of Science in Business Analytics
The master’s program in the Department of Biological Sciences is designed to qualify persons for continued graduate work at the doctoral level; for teaching biology in high schools, community colleges, and liberal arts colleges; and for employment in various fields of biology, including certain fields of applied biology. This program is available on campus and offers concentrations in Botany, Ecology and Biodiversity, General Biology, Microbial and Cellular Biology, and Zoology.
^ The spelling of master's degree and master's without an apostrophe is considered a mistake by many (see non-standard apostrophe use), but it is becoming more common. It is considered incorrect by most if not all US and most UK and Australian universities, style guides, and dictionaries, for example: OED, Collins, Cambridge Dictionaries Online, American Heritage (master's), American Heritage (master's degree), Merriam-Webster, and the Macquarie Dictionary (not free online) as shown in the following Monash University quotation. Monash University's style guide directly admits that the incorrectly missing apostrophe used to be more widespread in publications of this and therefore presumably other Australian universities: "Note that both 'bachelor's degree’ and 'master's degree', when used in a generic sense, require an apostrophe. While some dislike this convention, it is prescribed by the Macquarie Dictionary (the Australian standard) and the Oxford English Dictionary (the UK standard), and aligns with our key institutional partner Warwick University. Currently you will find the terms used both with and without an apostrophe throughout our online and print publications – gradually, we need to move toward correct usage."
The écoles doctorales ("Doctoral schools") are educational structures similar in focus to graduate schools, but restricted at PhD level. These schools have the responsibilities of providing students with a structured doctoral training in a disciplinary field. The field of the school is related to the strength of the university: while some have two or three schools (typically "Arts and Humanities" and "Natural and Technological Sciences"), others have more specialized schools (History, Aeronautics, etc.).
Integrated master's degrees (MChem, MEng, MMath, MPharm, MPhys, MPsych, MSci, etc.) are UK degrees that combine an undergraduate bachelor's degree course with an extra year at master's level (i.e. a total of four years in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and five years in Scotland). A 2011 survey of UK Higher Education Institutes found that 64% offered integrated master's course, mostly in STEM disciplines, with the most common degrees being MEng, MSci and MChem. 82% of respondents conferred only a master's degree for the course, while 9% conferred a bachelor's degree at the end of the bachelor's-level stage and a master's degree at the end of the course and a further 9% conferred both bachelor's and master's degrees at the end of the course.[56][57]
Admission to a doctoral program generally requires a thesis-type master's degree in a related field, sufficiently high grades, recommendations, samples of writing, a research proposal, and typically an interview with a prospective supervisor. Requirements are often set higher than those for a master's program. In exceptional cases, a student holding an honours bachelor or Canadian bachelor with honours with sufficiently high grades and proven writing and research abilities may be admitted directly to a Ph.D. program without the requirement to first complete a master's. Many Canadian graduate programs allow students who start in a master's to "reclassify" into a Ph.D. program after satisfactory performance in the first year, bypassing the master's degree. High-performing students may be admitted to the "Ph.D.2" (2nd Ph.D. year) of a five-year Ph.D. program if they are holders of one of the rare thesis-type M.A. degrees which require a combined "M.A./Ph.D.1" program.[28]
If your ultimate goal is to work directly with people to help them overcome mental illness, then a specialty area focused on mental health and social services would be a good option for you. While there are some entry-level positions in this field for those with a master's degree in psychology, those holding with a PhD or PsyD will find more plentiful job opportunities.
Develop analytical and problem solving skills associated with complex natural resources issues, and learn from world-renowned OSU faculty. This is an accredited program in which you study the interaction of ecological, economic, ethical and social systems. Students explore multiple fields and choose an area of emphasis based on their professional goals and interests.

A French diplôme d'ingénieur (postgraduate degree in engineering) is also the equivalent of a master's degree, provided the diploma is recognised by the Commission des titres d'ingénieur, as are qualifications recognised at Level I of the répertoire national des certifications professionnelles (national register of professional certificates).[81][82]
Counseling is certainly not a "one-size-fits-all" option. If you are interested in entering this field, it is important to think about the kind of counseling that you want to perform. There are several different types of counseling degrees available. These degrees can vary in terms of academic requirements and specialty areas, so it is important to consider the differences as well as your career goals before deciding which degree is right for you.
The University of Scranton has grounded its education in Catholic and Jesuit principles based on intellectual growth and integrity, all of which shape the online master’s and certificate programs. You can choose one of six degree programs from a selective institution ranked among the top 10 master’s universities in the North by U.S. News & World Report.
The increased prevalence of online master's degree programs may be one reason why degrees conferred at this level have increased by 66 percent since the 2000-01 academic year. In the 2015-16 term, 786,000 master's degrees were awarded by post-secondary institutions. Over half of them were concentrated in the business, education, and healthcare fields.
The Weldon School's PhD options (post-BS or post-MS) in biomedical engineering are highly interdisciplinary in nature and involve faculty and laboratories at Purdue's College of Engineering, College of Science, School of Engineering and Technology, and the School of Veterinary Medicine on the West Lafayette campus as well as the Indiana University School of Medicine in Indianapolis. The combined faculty, staff, and facilities of the two campuses provide tremendous resources for our students. Doctoral program students work on translating discoveries into effective medical products, gaining a unique experience in converting theory to reality. These programs span modern biomedical engineering and build on a deep history of research at the Weldon School that has had significant industrial and clinical impact. Applicants with a master’s degree have the opportunity to transfer course work from that degree toward the PhD requirements, reducing the time to degree completion.
The Applied Mechanics department was founded nearly five decades ago to focus on research and education in the areas of solid mechanics and dynamics. Current research is mainly in the area of dynamics, dealing with topics such as vibrations of structures and machinery, structural response to earthquakes, including system identification and control of structural response, and fundamental studies of the behavior of nonlinear dynamical systems.
The Australian Qualifications Framework classifies master's degrees as research, coursework or extended. Research master's degrees typically take one to two years, and two thirds of their content consists of research, research training and independent study. Coursework master's degrees typically also last one to two years, and consist mainly of structured learning with some independent research and project work or practice-related learning. Extended master's degrees typically take three to four years and contain significant practice-related learning that must be developed in collaboration with relevant professional, statutory or regulatory bodies.[61]

A master's degree[note 1] (from Latin magister) is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.[1] A master's degree normally requires previous study at the bachelor's level, either as a separate degree or as part of an integrated course. Within the area studied, master's graduates are expected to possess advanced knowledge of a specialized body of theoretical and applied topics; high order skills in analysis, critical evaluation, or professional application; and the ability to solve complex problems and think rigorously and independently.
This site presents the policies and procedures of the graduate program in the Department of Computer Science at Virginia Tech. The links at the right will guide you through the material. Mechanics that are common to all of the degrees are discussed in the Administrivia section. The rules specific to a given degree option, certificate, or program can be found under Degrees and Certificates.
Rural communities—both in the U.S. and globally—face an extraordinarily complex set of challenges due to sparse settlements and geographic isolation, exacerbated by globalization and technological change in an interdependent urban-rural system. Addressing these challenges requires both the theoretical insights of multiple disciplines and the practical wisdom that derives from engagement in...
Students must usually declare their research goal or submit a research proposal upon entering graduate school; in the case of master's degrees, there will be some flexibility (that is, one is not held to one's research proposal, although major changes, for example from premodern to modern history, are discouraged). In the case of Ph.D.s, the research direction is usually known as it will typically follow the direction of the master's research.
The MS in Physical Science with Physics Concentration offers study of the relationship between matter and energy. This concentration is designed to serve the needs of those planning to advance in a teaching career, enter industrial or governmental work, or continue graduate education at the doctoral level.Students benefit from small classes, a student-oriented faculty, research opportunities, and a flexible curriculum. Offered on campus.
First, start by making sure your overall goal is achievable by earning your graduate degree. Part of this process is making sure you choose a field of study that suits your personality and your academic or professional goals. Next you can determine if an online or traditional campus experience will fit your needs. Once you have all of that information, pick a few grad schools and request information about the specific program you are interested in. From there, you will then need to understand requirements for the application process.

MS in Special Education MS in Organization Development and Leadership MS in Health Administration - Organizational Development and Leadership MS in Business Intelligence and Analytics MS in Business Intelligence and Analytics – Cyber Analytics MS in Criminal Justice MS in Criminal Justice - Homeland Security Specialization MS in Criminal Justice - Intelligence and Crime Analysis Specialization MS in Criminal Justice - Behavior Analysis Specialization MS in Criminal Justice - Federal Law Enforcement Specialization MS in Business Intelligence and Analytics – General Track MS in Business Intelligence and Analytics – Data Analytics MS in Health Administration - General Concentration MS in Business Intelligence and Analytics – Data Science MS in Health Administration - Informatics Specialization MS in Secondary Education (with OATCERT) MS in Strategic Human Resource Management


Completion times for MSN degrees can be as short as 12 months or as long as several years, depending on each nurse's prior degrees and enrollment schedule. What can you do with a master's degree in nursing? Nurses with MSNs work in advanced practice roles, taking on increased responsibility. The degree prepares nurses for several certifications and licenses, including board certification for nurse practitioners.
MS Accounting MS in Financial Crime and Compliance Management MBA - Cyber Policy MBA - Cybersecurity MBA - Economic Crime and Fraud Management MBA - Data Analytics MS in Cybersecurity - Cyber Operations MS in Cybersecurity - Electronic Crime MS in Cybersecurity - Computer Forensics MBA - Finance and Accounting MBA - General MS in Cybersecurity MBA - Entrepreneurship MBA - Health Care Management MS in Cybersecurity - Malware Analysis MS in Cybersecurity - Cyber Intelligence MHA - Health Care Administration - Long Term Care MHA in Health Care Administration MHA - Health Care Administration - Acute Care MHA in Health Care Administration - Service Organization MS in Data Science - Cybersecurity MS in Data Science: Financial Crime MS in Data Science - Business Analytics MS in Data Science MS in Data Science: Social Science Analytics
This program prepares students for careers in scientific research or research combined with teaching, and so its most important part is independent research. Courses are offered that give a broad treatment of both fundamental physics and specialized physics research topics. These are intended both to help a beginning graduate student prepare for research and to broaden an advanced student’s knowledge of physics. Caltech research opportunities include elementary particle physics, nuclear physics, cosmic-ray, gamma-ray, and X-ray astronomy, sub-millimetetronomy, condensed-matter physics, atomic/molecular/optical physics, quantum optics, applied physics, gravitational physics, cosmology, astrophysics, mathematical physics, biophysics, and theoretical physics.
From the late Middle Ages until the nineteenth century, the pattern of degrees was therefore to have a bachelor's and master's degree in the lower faculties and to have bachelor's and doctorates in the higher faculties. In the United States, the first master's degrees (Magister Artium, or Master of Arts) were awarded at Harvard University soon after its foundation.[4] In Scotland, the pre-Reformation universities (St Andrews, Glasgow and Aberdeen) developed so that the Scottish MA became their first degree, while in Oxford, Cambridge and Trinity College, Dublin, the MA was awarded to BA graduates of a certain standing without further examination from the late seventeenth century, its main purpose being to confer full membership of the university.[5] At Harvard the 1700 regulations required that candidates for the master's degree had to pass a public examination,[6] but by 1835 this was awarded Oxbridge-style three years after the BA.[7]
Students must usually declare their research goal or submit a research proposal upon entering graduate school; in the case of master's degrees, there will be some flexibility (that is, one is not held to one's research proposal, although major changes, for example from premodern to modern history, are discouraged). In the case of Ph.D.s, the research direction is usually known as it will typically follow the direction of the master's research.
Generally, the Australian higher education system[23] follows that of its British counterpart (with some notable exceptions). Entrance is decided by merit, entrance to coursework-based programmes is usually not as strict; most universities usually require a "Credit" average as entry to their taught programmes in a field related to their previous undergraduate. On average, however, a strong "Credit" or "Distinction" average is the norm for accepted students. Not all coursework programs require the student to already possess the relevant undergraduate degree, they are intended as "conversion" or professional qualification programs, and merely any relevant undergraduate degree with good grades is required.
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