Many graduate students see themselves as akin to junior faculty, but with significantly lower pay.[citation needed] Many graduate students feel that teaching takes time that would better be spent on research, and many point out that there is a vicious circle in the academic labor economy. Institutions that rely on cheap graduate student labor have no need to create expensive professorships, so graduate students who have taught extensively in graduate school can find it immensely difficult to get a teaching job when they have obtained their degree. Many institutions depend heavily on graduate student teaching: a 2003 report by agitators for a graduate student union at Yale,[16] for instance, claims that "70% of undergraduate teaching contact hours at Yale are performed by transient teachers: graduate teachers, adjunct instructors, and other teachers not on the tenure track." The state of Michigan leads in terms of progressive policy regarding graduate student unions with five universities recognizing graduate employee unions: Central Michigan University, Michigan State University, the University of Michigan, Wayne State University, and Western Michigan University.
Master of Arts in Arts Administration Master of Business Administration – Sports Marketing & Revenue Generation Master of Business Administration - Strategic Leadership Master of Business Administration - Marketing Master of Business Administration Master of Education in Special Education Intervention Master of Social Work - Traditional Track Master of Social Work - Advanced Standing
Students pursuing a graduate program can search our thorough list of accredited online master’s degrees, including colleges and degree programs. Our best online master's list highlights the top schools, based on tuition rates and alumni salaries reported by PayScale. Our comprehensive list of master’s programs includes accredited programs in fields like accounting, computer science, healthcare administration, management, nursing, and nutrition, and allows prospective students to learn how many online programs are available in their desired field.
This graduate program is designed to take advantage of the previous experience of the incoming student. Research is undertaken with a faculty member of the student's choosing. Each student determines his or her course program with the assistance of a faculty advisor and committee. A coursework distribution augments technical skills, and it provides a broad, yet firm, background in advanced...
Often enough, terms like Master of Arts and Master of Sciences are abbreviated, and the rules on how to do it vary from one university and style guide to another. The academic title Master of Arts can be abbreviated as MA or M.A., and if the university in question is keen on Latin phrases, it may be abbreviated as AM or A.M., from the Latin Artium Magister.
Nurses who choose an online ASN-to-MSN program often continue working while earning their degree. Many programs offer flexible schedules, including asynchronous courses with no set login times. Nursing students can choose a full- or part-time option, depending on the program. Some programs also offer accelerated options, in which nurses with an ASN complete their MSN within two years.
The graduate certificate in public health online program at Oregon State University is designed for public health practitioners and others seeking professional development and continuing education within the field of public health. The program focuses on the five core areas of public health: epidemiology, biostatistics, health promotion and behavior, environmental and occupational health, and...
The nineteenth century saw a great expansion in the variety of master's degrees offered. At the start of the century, the only master's degree was the MA, and this was normally awarded without any further study or examination. The Master in Surgery degree was introduced by the University of Glasgow in 1815.[8] By 1861 this had been adopted throughout Scotland as well as by Cambridge and Durham in England and the University of Dublin in Ireland.[9] When the Philadelphia College of Surgeons was established in 1870, it too conferred the Master of Surgery, "the same as that in Europe".[10]
The Crop and Soil Science department offer graduate programs, with specialization in various fields of soil science, leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. Supporting course work is chosen for each student from the basic sciences and other related fields. Original research is an essential part of M.S. and Ph.D. programs. Each program is individually designed by the student and his or her graduate...

The University of Scranton has grounded its education in Catholic and Jesuit principles based on intellectual growth and integrity, all of which shape the online master’s and certificate programs. You can choose one of six degree programs from a selective institution ranked among the top 10 master’s universities in the North by U.S. News & World Report.
Marine Resource Management (MRM) is a science-based, interdisciplinary master's program based in the College of Earth, Ocean, and Astmospheric Science (CEOAS). The program provides students with the multidisciplinary training necessary to function confidently and effectively in professional resource management positions. Marine and coastal issues are technically and politically complex,...

Master of Science in Communication Master of Science in Communication: Communication & Leadership Master of Science in Education in Special Education Master of Science in Education in Learning Design and Technology Master of Science in Communication: Health Communication Master of Public Health Master of Science in Engineering Technology (MSET) Master of Science in Hospitality and Tourism Management Master of Science in Education in Curriculum and Instruction - Intergrated Stem Master of Science in Education in Curriculum and Instruction - Educational Technology Concentration Master of Science in Education in Curriculum and Instruction - Gifted, Creative, and Talented Studies Concentration Master of Science in Education in Curriculum and Instruction - Mathematics Education Concentration Master of Science in Education in Curriculum and Instruction - English Language Learning Concentration

A large share of the funding offered to junior researchers is channeled through the école doctorale, mainly in the shape of three-years "Doctoral Fellowships" (contrats doctoraux). These fellowships are awarded after submitting a biographical information, undergraduate and graduate transcripts where applicable, letters of recommendation, and research proposal, then an oral examination by an Academical Committee.
Marine and coastal scientific and management issues are technically and socially complex, involving many forms of science, interests, perspectives, and stakeholders. There is much uncertainty in modeling forecast and policy outcome associated with climate change and global markets. This interdisciplinary minor will provide graduate students with knowledge and skills to quantify and communicate...

Master of Science in Special Education, concentration/endorsement in Gifted, Talented and Creative (K-6, 6-12, PreK-12). Research shows teachers with training in gifted education are more likely to encourage students' higher-level thinking, allow for greater expression, consider individual student strengths and weaknesses, and provide a variety of learning experiences to challenge students. Offered online.
In France, the master's degree (diplôme de master) takes two years and is worth 120 ECTS credits.[80] The French master's degree is the combination of two individual years : the master 1 (M1) and master 2 (M2), following the Bologna Process. Depending on the goal of the student (a doctorate or a professional career) the master 2 can also be called a "Master Recherche" (research master) and a "Master Professionnel" (professional master), each with different requirements. To obtain a national diploma for the master 2 requires a minimum of one year of study after the master 1.

For the thesis option of a Master’s degree, students must complete at least 30 credit hours, which include a maximum of six credit hours of EEL 6971 (Research for Master’s Thesis). Thesis students must be registered for three credit hours of thesis (EEL 6971) in the term of graduation (Fall and Spring, and two credits in summer). EEL 6065, EEL 6910, EEL 6933, and EEL 6940 cannot be used to fulfill any credit requirements for the Master’s degree. The course requirements include a minimum of 18 hours of Electrical and Computer Engineering courses, excluding EEL 5905, 6905, and EGN 5949. CDA 5636 (Embedded Systems) can be used toward this course requirement by exception. This course requirement can only be fulfilled by completing ECE coursework at the University of Florida.
The MS in Physical Science with Physics Concentration offers study of the relationship between matter and energy. This concentration is designed to serve the needs of those planning to advance in a teaching career, enter industrial or governmental work, or continue graduate education at the doctoral level.Students benefit from small classes, a student-oriented faculty, research opportunities, and a flexible curriculum. Offered on campus.

A growing number of nursing schools offer online ADN-to-MSN programs for nurses with an associate degree in nursing. These programs, often called RN-to-MSN programs, require a current, unencumbered RN license to gain admission. Applicants also provide proof of an ADN degree that meets the program's minimum GPA requirement. During the application process, some ADN-to-MSN programs ask for test scores, letters of recommendation, a resume, and a statement of purpose.
Human development and family studies offers graduate work leading to master of science and doctor of philosophy degrees. Graduate programs take a multidisciplinary approach, preparing students for college and university teaching and research, as well as development, administration, and evaluation of programs serving individuals and families across the lifespan.
At the start of the twentieth century there were therefore four different sorts of master's degree in the UK: the Scottish MA, granted as a first degree; the Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin), granted to all BA graduates a certain period after their first degree without further study; master's degrees that could be gained either by further study or by gaining an honours degree (which, at the time in the UK involved further study beyond the ordinary degree, as it still does in Scotland and some Commonwealth countries); and master's degrees that could only be obtained by further study (including all London master's degrees). In 1903, the London Daily News criticised the practice of Oxford and Cambridge, calling their MAs "the most stupendous of academic frauds" and "bogus degrees".[30] Ensuing correspondence pointed out that "A Scotch M.A., at the most, is only the equivalent of an English B.A." and called for common standards for degrees, while defenders of the ancient universities said that "the Cambridge M.A. does not pretend to be a reward of learning" and that "it is rather absurd to describe one of their degrees as a bogus one because other modern Universities grant the same degree for different reasons".[31][32]
The Interdisciplinary Training Program in Auditory Neuroscience Program (TPAN) provides graduate student training and research experience at the interface of science and engineering, and in both humans and animal models. This training program prepares students for independent research careers that can advance our understanding of auditory system function using innovative tools and technologies. Graduates of this training program will develop creative solutions, devices and strategies to assist and prevent hearing loss in human patients.
For the next several years the doctoral candidate primarily performs his or her research. Usually this lasts three to eight years, though a few finish more quickly, and some take substantially longer. In total, the typical doctoral degree takes between four and eight years from entering the program to completion, though this time varies depending upon the department, dissertation topic, and many other factors. For example, astronomy degrees take five to six years on average, but observational astronomy degrees take six to seven due to limiting factors of weather, while theoretical astronomy degrees take five.
Master's degrees in counseling are often offered through a university's school of education. These programs focus on therapies and behavioral modification techniques. Individuals with an M.A. or M.S. in counseling often work as school counselors or career counselors, but they may also be employed in private practices, mental health clinics or hospitals.

An online BSN-to-MSN appeals to nurses seeking career advancement who prefer the flexibility of an online learning format. Applicants to BSN-to-MSN programs must hold a current, valid RN license, provide proof of a bachelor of science in nursing, and meet the program's GPA minimum. Many programs also ask for letters of recommendation, a resume, and a statement of purpose. After entering the MSN program, nursing students complete coursework in their specialization and meet clinical requirements.


The History of Science graduate program provides professional training in the interdisciplinary subject of history of science. The program connects the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences by studying and interpreting the development of the sciences within particular historical settings and analyzing the changing roles of the sciences within modern cultures. Emphasis in the...

Integrated master's degrees (MChem, MEng, MMath, MPharm, MPhys, MPsych, MSci, etc.) are UK degrees that combine an undergraduate bachelor's degree course with an extra year at master's level (i.e. a total of four years in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and five years in Scotland). A 2011 survey of UK Higher Education Institutes found that 64% offered integrated master's course, mostly in STEM disciplines, with the most common degrees being MEng, MSci and MChem. 82% of respondents conferred only a master's degree for the course, while 9% conferred a bachelor's degree at the end of the bachelor's-level stage and a master's degree at the end of the course and a further 9% conferred both bachelor's and master's degrees at the end of the course.[56][57]

Producing original research is a significant component of graduate studies in the humanities, natural sciences and social sciences. This research typically leads to the writing and defense of a thesis or dissertation. In graduate programs that are oriented toward professional training (e.g., MPA, MBA, MHA), the degrees may consist solely of coursework, without an original research or thesis component. The term "graduate school" is primarily North American. Additionally, in North America, the term does not usually refer to medical school (whose students are called "medical students"), and only occasionally refers to law school or business school; these are often collectively termed professional schools. Graduate students in the humanities, sciences and social sciences often receive funding from the school (e.g., fellowships or scholarships) and/or a teaching assistant position or other job; in the profession-oriented grad programs, students are less likely to get funding, and the fees are typically much higher.

Human factors is an area of psychology that focuses on a range of different topics, including ergonomics, workplace safety, human error, product design, human capability, and human-computer interaction. Human factors psychologists perform a number of duties such as exploring the ways that people interact with products and environments and designing interfaces that are easy to understand.
Rural communities—both in the U.S. and globally—face an extraordinarily complex set of challenges due to sparse settlements and geographic isolation, exacerbated by globalization and technological change in an interdependent urban-rural system. Addressing these challenges requires both the theoretical insights of multiple disciplines and the practical wisdom that derives from engagement in...
Many universities award graduate degrees; a graduate school is not necessarily a separate institution. While the term "graduate school" is typical in the United States and often used elsewhere (e.g., Canada), "postgraduate education" is also used in English-speaking countries (Australia, Bangladesh, Canada, India, Ireland, India, New Zealand, Pakistan, and the UK) to refer to the spectrum of education beyond a bachelor's degree. Those attending graduate schools are called "graduate students" (in both American and British English), or often in British English as "postgraduate students" and, colloquially, "postgraduates" and "postgrads". Degrees awarded to graduate students include master's degrees, doctoral degrees, and other postgraduate qualifications such as graduate certificates and professional degrees.
It should be a master level course for a single course. Do notice that it is 1 course. If it is multiple courses, you can say, master’s level course . Master’s generally refer to the degree, as in, I have a Master’s degree. Do notice that the M is capitalized. For example, a Master in Art. It can also be written as Master’s degree. It all depends on context.

The Chicago School is a not-for-profit, regionally accredited institution with more than 4,285 students at campuses across the country and online.  TCSPP has been an innovator in the field of psychology and related behavioral science for more than 30 years.  TCSPP offers more than 20 degree programs and a wealth of opportunities for international experiences.

Industrial Engineering is the application of science, mathematics, and engineering methods to complex system integration and operation. Because the systems with which they work is so large and complex, industrial engineers (IEs) must develop expertise in a wide variety of disciplines, the ability to work well with people, and a broad, systems perspective.


During an RN-to-MSN program, nursing students complete BSN-level coursework to qualify for the MSN program. After meeting the coursework requirements, nursing students choose an MSN specialization and take graduate-level classes in their field. MSN students must also meet clinical requirements, usually 200 clinical hours in their specialization, to build hands-on experience.
Master's degrees. These are sometimes placed in a further hierarchy, starting with degrees such as the Master of Arts (from Latin Magister artium; M.A.) and Master of Science (from Latin Magister scientiæ; M.Sc.) degrees, then the Master of Philosophy degree (from Latin Magister philosophiæ; M.Phil.), and finally the Master of Letters degree (from Latin Magister litterarum; M.Litt.) (all formerly known in France as DEA or DESS before 2005, and nowadays Masters too). In the UK, master's degrees may be taught or by research: taught master's degrees include the Master of Science and Master of Arts degrees which last one year and are worth 180 CATS credits (equivalent to 90 ECTS European credits[8]), whereas the master's degrees by research include the Master of Research degree (M.Res.) which also lasts one year and is worth 180 CATS or 90 ECTS credits (the difference compared to the Master of Science and Master of Arts degrees being that the research is much more extensive) and the Master of Philosophy degree which lasts two years. In Scottish Universities, the Master of Philosophy degree tends to be by research or higher master's degree and the Master of Letters degree tends to be the taught or lower master's degree. In many fields such as clinical social work, or library science in North America, a master's is the terminal degree. Professional degrees such as the Master of Architecture degree (M.Arch.) can last to three and a half years to satisfy professional requirements to be an architect. Professional degrees such as the Master of Business Administration degree (M.B.A.) can last up to two years to satisfy the requirement to become a knowledgeable business leader.[9]
×