The traditional and most common way of obtaining a doctorate in Germany is by doing so individually under supervision of a single professor (Doktorvater or Doktormutter) without any formal curriculum. During their studies, doctoral students are enrolled at university while often being employed simultaneously either at the university itself, at a research institute or at a company as a researcher.[5] Working in research during doctoral studies is, however, not a formal requirement.

In the UK and countries whose education systems were founded on the British model, such as the US, the master's degree was for a long time the only postgraduate degree normally awarded, while in most European countries apart from the UK, the master's degree almost disappeared[citation needed]. In the second half of the 19th century, however, US universities began to follow the European model by awarding doctorates, and this practice spread to the UK. Conversely, most European universities now offer master's degrees parallelling or replacing their regular system, so as to offer their students better chances to compete in an international market dominated by the American model.[13]

The program of Comparative Health Sciences is a multi-disciplinary program offering graduate training towards M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. The program encourages applicants with interest in complex contemporaneous issues that require multi-disciplinary approach to be addressed. Faculty involved in the program have interests ranging from microbiology, ecology, immunology, nutrition, food science,...


Purdue University administers its largest and most comprehensive campus in West Lafayette, Indiana, home to the Purdue University Graduate School. The Graduate School oversees more than 130 graduate programs at the West Lafayette campus, including exciting interdisciplinary graduate programs and a variety of certificate programs.  Browse the programs below to see which one best fits your interest!
In addition to social services, those with a graduate degree in psychology are also qualified to work in research or educational settings. College and universities employ PhD-level (and occasionally masters level) graduates to fill faculty positions. Professors are generally expected to teach undergraduate- and graduate-level students as well as conduct research.

Research in the department stresses mathematical depth, the integration of theory and implementation, and a broad perspective on computing systems. Students are encouraged to tailor their programs of courses and research to fit their specific needs.  Research emphases are in algorithms; communication protocols, concurrent computation, and networks; graphics and human-computer interaction; novel computational substrates, including quantum mechanical computers and molecular computers; VLSI, with a specific emphasis on asynchronous and analog VLSI; high-confidence systems, including fault tolerance, program verification, and security; information theory; learning theory; computational complexity; computer vision; and large-scale scientific computing.  Caltech's new centers of Information Science and Technology (IST) facilitate multidisciplinary collaboration across all departments on campus.  Graduate projects frequently involve connections with other disciplines including Physics, Biology, Control and Dynamical Systems, and Social Sciences. Students join a research group from the very beginning of their sojourn at Caltech so it is desirable that applicants have a defined area of interest when applying.
Students pursuing a graduate program can search our thorough list of accredited online master’s degrees, including colleges and degree programs. Our best online master's list highlights the top schools, based on tuition rates and alumni salaries reported by PayScale. Our comprehensive list of master’s programs includes accredited programs in fields like accounting, computer science, healthcare administration, management, nursing, and nutrition, and allows prospective students to learn how many online programs are available in their desired field.
In all cases, comprehensive exams are normally both stressful and time consuming and must be passed to be allowed to proceed on to the dissertation. Passing such examinations allows the student to stay, begin doctoral research, and rise to the status of a doctoral candidate, while failing usually results in the student leaving the program or re-taking the test after some time has passed (usually a semester or a year). Some schools have an intermediate category, passing at the master's level, which allows the student to leave with a master's without having completed a master's dissertation.
The Department of Physics offers courses and research experience leading to the master of arts, master of science, and doctor of philosophy degrees. Advanced-degree candidates may pursue thesis research in experimental, computational, or theoretical AMO (atomic, molecular, and optical) physics, nuclear and particle physics, or solid state physics. Special programs are available for students...
The Crop and Soil Science department offer graduate programs, with specialization in various fields of soil science, leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. Supporting course work is chosen for each student from the basic sciences and other related fields. Original research is an essential part of M.S. and Ph.D. programs. Each program is individually designed by the student and his or her graduate...
The program combines individual depth of experience and competence in a particular chosen major specialty, and a strong background in the basic and engineering sciences, with laboratory and design experience. It strives to develop professional independence, creativity, leadership, and the capacity for continuing professional and intellectual growth, and the graduate program aims to provide for students a depth of competence and experience in their major field, sufficient strength in the basic sciences to allow them to continue self-education after their formal training has been completed, and the motivation and training to keep them in the forefront of their field through a long and productive career. Students are encouraged to explore work in interdisciplinary areas both within and outside the division, and to gain experience in teaching.
The Institute of Medicine’s “Vison 2020” recommends all clinical nurses hold a B.S.N., and the ACN backs their recommendation. This means that top healthcare organizations aren’t considering hiring clinical nurses without at least the B.S.N. credential. Advanced nursing roles call for a master’s or doctorate-level degree. Like many things over time, the nursing industry has expanded beyond the skills and knowledge an R.N. credential alone provides. To maintain a lifelong nursing career, or to work in one of the many new nursing positions, you need an advanced nursing degree.Nursing Degree Options.If you’re wondering what program is best for you, think about the responsibilities you enjoy as a nurse as well as what you’re naturally interested in learning.

Graduate students in the Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences enter with diverse undergraduate preparation—majors in astronomy, biology, chemistry, mathematics, and physics, as well as in geochemistry, geology, and geophysics. Graduate study and research within the division are equally diverse, and the graduate program aims to provide for students a depth of competence and experience in their major field, sufficient strength in the basic sciences to allow them to continue self-education after their formal training has been completed, and the motivation and training to keep them in the forefront of their field through a long and productive career. Students are encouraged to explore work in interdisciplinary areas both within and outside the division, and to gain experience in teaching.
Applied Physics at Caltech is built on the foundations of quantum mechanicstistical physics, electromagnetic theory, mechanics, and advanced mathematics. The comparatively small size of Caltech coupled with its great strength in both the pure sciences and engineering make it possible to have a faculty with a wide interest in the application of modern physics to technology, without losing close interaction with "pure subjects."
For the thesis option of a Master’s degree, students must complete at least 30 credit hours, which include a maximum of six credit hours of EEL 6971 (Research for Master’s Thesis). Thesis students must be registered for three credit hours of thesis (EEL 6971) in the term of graduation (Fall and Spring, and two credits in summer). EEL 6065, EEL 6910, EEL 6933, and EEL 6940 cannot be used to fulfill any credit requirements for the Master’s degree. The course requirements include a minimum of 18 hours of Electrical and Computer Engineering courses, excluding EEL 5905, 6905, and EGN 5949. CDA 5636 (Embedded Systems) can be used toward this course requirement by exception. This course requirement can only be fulfilled by completing ECE coursework at the University of Florida.
Currently, the department is concentrated primarily on earthquake engineering, a field in which Caltech researchers have been important contributors since the 1920's. Research is currently being conducted in areas such as seismic early warning, characterization of near-source motion in earthquakes, soil-structure interaction, nonlinear finite element analysis of civil structures, structural health monitoring and earthquake loss-estimation.
Below is a list of all graduate degree and certificate programs offered at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. A graduate degree or certificate is awarded upon completion of a specified program of study in a major field. Degree titles are posted on transcripts and diplomas, while the titles of majors and certificates are only posted on transcripts. The Graduate School Catalog provides further details about each degree and certificate program, and you can download a PDF version of the list of graduate degrees and certificate programs.
The department offers graduate work leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Statistics. Students can concentrate on theory or applications, and programs can be tailored to emphasize such areas of interest as ecology, engineering, forestry, genetics/genomics and computational biology, mathematics, or oceanography. All students obtain experience as statistical consultants for problems in a variety...
The Bologna declaration in 1999 started the Bologna Process, leading to the creation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). This established a three-cycle bachelor's—master's—doctorate classification of degrees, leading to the adoption of master's degrees across the continent, often replacing older long-cycle qualifications such as the Magister (arts), Diplom (sciences) and state registration (professional) awards in Germany.[45] As the process continued, descriptors were introduced for all three levels in 2004, and ECTS credit guidelines were developed. This led to questions as to the status of the integrated master's degrees and one-year master's degrees in the UK.[46] However, the Framework for Higher Education Qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and the Framework for Qualifications of Higher Education Institutes in Scotland have both been aligned with the overarching framework for the EHEA with these being accepted as master's-level qualifications.
Online programs offer flexible options like asynchronous classes with no set login times. Working nurses often struggle to attend set class times because of their varying schedules. Furthermore, rather than remaining limited to local nursing schools, as with a traditional program, online students enroll in top programs across the country without relocating.
Postgraduate studies in Israel require the completion of a bachelor's degree and is dependent upon this title's grades; see Education in Israel #Higher education. Degrees awarded are the M.A., M.Sc., M.B.A. and LLM; the Technion awards a non-thesis M.Eng. [95] There also exists "a direct track" doctorate degree, which lasts four to five years. Taking this route, students prepare a preliminary research paper during their first year, after which they must pass an exam before being allowed to proceed, at which point they are awarded a master's degree.

Students must usually declare their research goal or submit a research proposal upon entering graduate school; in the case of master's degrees, there will be some flexibility (that is, one is not held to one's research proposal, although major changes, for example from premodern to modern history, are discouraged). In the case of Ph.D.s, the research direction is usually known as it will typically follow the direction of the master's research.
MA, Leadership: Organizational Leadership Specialization MBA, Sports Management Specialization MBA, Chief School Business Official Specialization MBA, Not-for-Profit Management Specialization MBA, Leadership and Change Management Specialization MBA, School Business Management Specialization MBA, Entrepreneurship Specialization The Concordia University Chicago Core MBA MBA, Digital Marketing Specialization MBA, Health Care Management Specialization MBA, Accounting Specialization MBA, Finance Specialization MA, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Master's degrees in counseling are often offered through a university's school of education. These programs focus on therapies and behavioral modification techniques. Individuals with an M.A. or M.S. in counseling often work as school counselors or career counselors, but they may also be employed in private practices, mental health clinics or hospitals.
Probably the most important master's degree introduced in the 19th century was the Master of Science (MS in the US, MSc in the UK). At the University of Michigan this was introduced in two forms in 1858: "in course", first awarded in 1859, and "on examination", first awarded in 1862. The "in course" MS was last awarded in 1876.[19] In Britain, however, the degree took a while longer to arrive. When London introduced its Faculty of Sciences in 1858, the University was granted a new charter giving it the power "to confer the several Degrees of Bachelor, Master, and Doctor, in Arts, Laws, Science, Medicine, Music",[20] but the degrees it awarded in science were the Bachelor of Science and the Doctor of Science.[21] The same two degrees, again omitting the master's, were awarded at Edinburgh, despite the MA being the standard undergraduate degree for Arts in Scotland.[22] In 1862, a Royal Commission suggested that Durham should award master's degrees in theology and science (with the suggested abbreviations MT and MS, contrary to later British practice of using MTh or MTheol and MSc for these degrees),[23] but its recommendations were not enacted. In 1877, Oxford introduced the Master of Natural Science, along with the Bachelor of Natural Science, to stand alongside the MA and BA degrees and be awarded to students who took their degrees in the honours school of natural sciences.[24] In 1879 a statute to actually establish the faculty of Natural Sciences at Oxford was promulgated,[25] but in 1880 a proposal to rename the degree as a Master of Science was rejected along with a proposal to grant Masters of Natural Sciences a Master of Arts degree, in order to make them full members of the University.[26] This scheme would appear to have then been quietly dropped, with Oxford going on to award BAs and MAs in science.
Upon completion of at least two years' research and coursework as a postgraduate student, a candidate must demonstrate truthful and original contributions to his or her specific field of knowledge within a frame of academic excellence.[17] The Master and Doctoral candidate's work should be presented in a dissertation or thesis prepared under the supervision of a tutor or director, and reviewed by a postgraduate Committee. This Committee should be composed of examiners external to the program, and at least one of them should also be external to the institution.[18]
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