In the United States there are many graduate employee unions at public universities. The Coalition of Graduate Employee Unions lists 25 recognized unions at public universities on its website. Private universities, however, are covered under the National Labor Relations Act rather than state labor laws and until 2001 there were no recognized unions at private universities.
When considering earning a master's degree online, prospective students should review rankings, as they can be a way to understand how different schools might serve their needs. Schools are ranked based on factors like acceptance rate, admission requirements, tuition and fees, and other data points related to how schools support degree attainment for students. With this information, prospective master's candidates can make an informed decision on a program that is right for them.
Foreign students are typically funded the same way as domestic (US) students, although federally subsidized student and parent loans and work-study assistance are generally limited to US citizens and nationals, permanent residents, and approved refugees.[37] Moreover, some funding sources (such as many NSF fellowships) may only be awarded to domestic students. Other factors contributing to possible financial difficulties include high costs to visit their families back home, supporting one's family who is not allowed to work due to immigration laws, tuition that is steep by world standards, and large fees: visa fees by US Citizenship and Immigration Services, surveillance fees (such as Student and Exchange Visitor Information Systems, or SEVIS[38]) by the United States Congress and the United States Department of Homeland Security.
For the next several years, the doctoral candidate primarily performs his or her research. Usually this lasts three to eight years, though a few finish more quickly and some take substantially longer. In total, the typical doctoral degree takes between four and eight years from entering the program to completion though this time varies depending upon the department, thesis topic, and many other factors.
Dual Master of Public Health/Master of Science in Management and Organizational Behavior Master of Science in Management and Organizational Behavior Accelerated MSMOB Master of Science in Accountancy Accelerated Masters in Business Administration Dual Master of Business Administration/Master of Public Health Dual Master of Business Administration/Master of Science in Management and Organizational Behavior Master of Business Administration Master of Public Health - Health Education & Promotion Master of Science in Nutrition and Wellness Master of Public Health - Health Management & Policy Master of Public Health Master of Science in Nursing Master of Science in Nursing - Nurse Educator Dual MBA-MSN Master of Science in Nursing - Nurse Executive Leader Master of Public Health - Epidemiology Focus
Graduate students often declare their intended degree (master's or doctorate) in their applications. In some cases, master's programs allow successful students to continue toward the doctorate degree. Additionally, doctoral students who have advanced to candidacy but not filed a dissertation ("ABD", for "all but dissertation") often receive master's degrees and an additional master's called a Master of Philosophy (MPhil) or a Candidate of Philosophy (C.Phil.) degree. The master's component of a doctorate program often requires one or two years.
The United States Department of Education classifies master's degrees as research or professional. Research master's degrees in the US (e.g., M.A./A.M. or M.S.) require the completion of taught courses and examinations in a major and one or more minor subjects, as well as (normally) a research thesis. Professional master's degrees may be structured like research master's (e.g., M.E./M.Eng.) or may concentrate on a specific discipline (e.g., M.B.A.) and often substitute a project for the thesis.[48]

The Department of Physics offers courses and research experience leading to the master of arts, master of science, and doctor of philosophy degrees. Advanced-degree candidates may pursue thesis research in experimental, computational, or theoretical AMO (atomic, molecular, and optical) physics, nuclear and particle physics, or solid state physics. Special programs are available for students...
MPA Management Information Systems MPA Health Services Master of Business Administration - Management Information Systems Master of Business Administration - Financial Management Master of Business Administration - Human Resources Management Master of Business Administration - Management Master of Science in Organizational Leadership - Project Management Master of Business Administration - Applied Computer Science Master of Science in Health Psychology Master of Education - Athletic Coaching Master of Education - Sport and Athletic Management Master of Public Administration MPA Criminal Justice Master of Education - Special Education Master of Business Administration - Management of Engineering and Technology Master of Social Work Master of Education - Reading Education Master of Science in Technology and Innovation Management - Engineering Management Master of Business Administration - Entrepreneurship Master of Business Administration - Project Management Master of Science in Information Technology Master of Arts in Marriage & Family Therapy - General Family Therapy Master of Education - Curriculum and Teaching Master of Business Administration - International Business Master of Education - Early Childhood Education
The combined BS/MS is a special program for outstanding current Weldon School undergraduates who have established research relationships with faculty members. This program was created to provide further training to undergraduates who have been conducting research in the labs of our faculty and who strongly desire to continue their research toward an MS or PhD degree. The ultimate plan of study is intended to prepare students for PhD level graduate studies or research-oriented industry positions. The proposed program enables students to complete the BS and the MS in a total of five, rather than the typical six, years.
Are you seeking a career in the healthcare industry, medical device development, entrepreneurship, or regulatory affairs? Or perhaps you’re interested in combining engineering research and design with clinical care? We are offering multiple exciting new pathways to a graduate degree to meet the diverse career interests of our students and the industry's growing demand of biomedical engineers with advanced degrees.
Many graduate programs require students to pass one or several examinations in order to demonstrate their competence as scholars.[6] In some departments, a comprehensive examination is often required in the first year of doctoral study, and is designed to test a student's background undergraduate-level knowledge. Examinations of this type are more common in the sciences and some social sciences but relatively unknown in most humanities disciplines.
Up to 18 hours of Special Topics (EEL 5934, 6935, and 7936) may be applied toward the degree. Up to six hours of unstructured credit hours total (EEL 5905, EEL 6905 or EGN 5949) may be applied toward the degree. Students can count a maximum of 3 credits of EGN 5949 toward their degree program. No other S/U credit can be counted toward the degree. All non‐thesis students are required to have a one‐member supervisory committee. The ECE department chair serves as the default non‐thesis committee member for all non‐thesis students and is automatically appointed for all non‐thesis students during their graduating semester. Students must receive a final grade of “C” or better to receive degree credit for a letter graded course. A course with a final grade of “C” and above cannot be repeated for credit. If a student receives a grade less than a “C” for a course, s/he may retake the course and an average of both grades will be used when compiling GPA graduation requirements. Courses in which students receive a grade of “C‐“ or lower will not be used to fulfill credit requirements but will adversely affect a students’ GPA.
Women, Gender, and Sexuality Studies is the multidisciplinary study of gender and women's lives and experiences. Course work explores women's realities in such areas as the political and social sciences, health, psychology, history, literature, and the arts. Women, Gender, and Sexuality Studies programs grew out of the women's movement, involving understandings of discrimination in society and...
Doctoral students generally spend roughly their first two to three years doing coursework, and begin research by their second year if not before. Many master's and all specialist students will perform research culminating in a paper, presentation, and defense of their research. This is called the master's thesis (or, for Educational Specialist students, the specialist paper). However, many US master's degree programs do not require a master's thesis, focusing instead primarily on course work or on "practicals" or "workshops." Such "real-world" experience may typically require a candidate work on a project alone or in a team as a consultant, or consultants, for an outside entity approved or selected by the academic institution, and under faculty supervision.
Master's candidates undertaking research are typically required to complete a thesis comprising some original research and ranging from seventy to two-hundred pages. Some fields may require candidates to study at least one foreign language if they have not already earned sufficient foreign-language credits. Some faculties require candidates to defend their thesis, but many do not. Those that do not often have a requirement of taking two additional courses, minimum, in lieu of preparing a thesis.

Geology is the study of the materials, processes, and history of the solid Earth and its fluid envelopes. Geology is an integrative field, drawing on mathematics, chemistry, physics and biology to understand the interactions of the lithosphere, biosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere. Studies in geology commonly combine observations and measurements from field, laboratory, and computational...
In Italy the master's degree is equivalent to the two-year Laurea magistrale, which can be earned after a Laurea (a three-year undergraduate degree, equivalent to a bachelor's degree). In particular fields, namely law, pharmacy and medicine, this distinction is not made. University courses are therefore single and last five to six years, after which the master's degree is awarded (in this case referred to as Laurea magistrale a ciclo unico). The old Laurea degree (Vecchio Ordinamento, Old Regulations), which was the only awarded in Italy before the Bologna process, is equivalent[83] to the current Laurea Magistrale.

The 21-credit Graduate Certificate in Business Analytics is designed to provide advanced coursework and experiential learning opportunities to students interested in careers that involve the application of statistical modeling, data warehousing, data mining, programming, forecasting and operations research techniques to the analysis of problems of business organization and performance.
If you are dedicated to creating better ways to feed or fuel the world now and in the future, studying crop science can ensure that you have a hand in the development of new, sustainable methods of agriculture for Oregon and the world. You'll gain practical experience in quality breeding methods, seed technology, entomology, weed management techniques and more.
From the History and Philosophy of Science to Applied Ethics and Religion, our courses connect across the OSU campus providing a broad perspective and a unique insight into the issues facing our world.  Our students and faculty research on and collaborate with a wide array of disciplines from Oceanography to Nuclear Engineering - from Music to Environmental Science.  Our school provides...
This graduate program is designed to take advantage of the previous experience of the incoming student. Research is undertaken with a faculty member of the student's choosing. Each student determines his or her course program with the assistance of a faculty advisor and committee. A coursework distribution augments technical skills, and it provides a broad, yet firm, background in advanced...
The Environmental Sciences Graduate Program provides curricula leading to M.A. M.S., Professional Science Master's (PSM) and Ph.D. degrees in environmental science. The curricula integrates thinking across disciplines, especially life, physical, and social sciences. Environmental science explores natural processes on earth and their alteration by human activity.
For overseas students, most major funding applications are due as early as twelve months or more before the intended graduate course will begin. This funding is also often highly competitive. The most widely available, and thus important, award for overseas students is the Overseas Research Student (ORS) Award, which pays the difference in university fees between an overseas student and a British or EU resident. However, a student can only for one university apply for the ORS Award, often before he or she knows whether they have been accepted. As of the 2009/2010 academic year, the HEFCE has cancelled the Overseas Research Student Award scheme for English and Welsh universities.[34] The state of the scheme for Scottish and Northern Irish universities is currently unclear.
Oregon State University offers both Master and PhD Public Policy degrees for students interested in the study and practice of policy about issues critical to Oregonians and the world, drawing on the traditional strengths and emerging signature areas of OSU. While there is a science of policy including theoretical and methodological approaches that we expect students to master, the discipline...
Postgraduate degrees in Nigeria include M.A., M.Sc., M.Ed., M.Eng., LL.M, M.Arch., M.Agric., M.Phil., PhD. The master's degree typically take 18–36 months with students undertaking coursework and presenting seminars and a dissertation. The doctoral degree is for a minimum of 36 months and may involve coursework alongside the presentation of seminars and a research thesis. Award of postgraduate degrees requires a defence of the completed research before a panel of examiners comprising external and internal examiners, Head of Department, Departmental Postgraduate Coordinator, Representative(s) of Faculty and Postgraduate School, and any other member of staff with a PhD in the department/faculty.
In 1900, Dartmouth College introduced the Master of Commercial Science (MCS), first awarded in 1902. This was the first master's degree in business, the forerunner of the modern MBA.[33] The idea quickly crossed the Atlantic, with Manchester establishing a Faculty of Commerce, awarding Bachelor and Master of Commerce degrees, in 1903.[34] Over the first half of the century the automatic master's degrees for honours graduates vanished as honours degrees became the standard undergraduate qualification in the UK. In the 1960s, new Scottish universities (with the exception of Dundee, which inherited the undergraduate MA from St Andrews) reintroduced the BA as their undergraduate degree in Arts, restoring the MA to its position as a postgraduate qualification. Oxford and Cambridge retained their MAs, but renamed many of their postgraduate bachelor's degrees in the higher faculties as master's degrees, e.g. the Cambridge LLB became the LLM in 1982,[35] and the Oxford BLitt, BPhil (except in philosophy) and BSc became the MLitt, MPhil and MSc.[36]
Human development and family studies offers graduate work leading to master of science and doctor of philosophy degrees. Graduate programs take a multidisciplinary approach, preparing students for college and university teaching and research, as well as development, administration, and evaluation of programs serving individuals and families across the lifespan.
After acquiring a Bachelor's or Licenciate Degree, students are qualified to continue their academic career through Master's Degree ("mestrado", in Portuguese, a.k.a. stricto sensu post-graduation) or Specialization Degree ("especialização", in Portuguese, a.k.a. lato sensu post-graduation) programs. At the Master's program there are 2–3 years of graduate-level studies. Usually focused on academic research, the Master's Degree requires, on any specific knowledge area, the development of a thesis to be presented and defended before a board of professors after the period of research. Conversely, the Specialization Degree, also comprehends a 1–2 years studies, but does not require a new thesis to be proposed and defended, being usually attended by professionals looking for complementary training on a specific area of their knowledge.

Probably the most important master's degree introduced in the 19th century was the Master of Science (MS in the US, MSc in the UK). At the University of Michigan this was introduced in two forms in 1858: "in course", first awarded in 1859, and "on examination", first awarded in 1862. The "in course" MS was last awarded in 1876.[19] In Britain, however, the degree took a while longer to arrive. When London introduced its Faculty of Sciences in 1858, the University was granted a new charter giving it the power "to confer the several Degrees of Bachelor, Master, and Doctor, in Arts, Laws, Science, Medicine, Music",[20] but the degrees it awarded in science were the Bachelor of Science and the Doctor of Science.[21] The same two degrees, again omitting the master's, were awarded at Edinburgh, despite the MA being the standard undergraduate degree for Arts in Scotland.[22] In 1862, a Royal Commission suggested that Durham should award master's degrees in theology and science (with the suggested abbreviations MT and MS, contrary to later British practice of using MTh or MTheol and MSc for these degrees),[23] but its recommendations were not enacted. In 1877, Oxford introduced the Master of Natural Science, along with the Bachelor of Natural Science, to stand alongside the MA and BA degrees and be awarded to students who took their degrees in the honours school of natural sciences.[24] In 1879 a statute to actually establish the faculty of Natural Sciences at Oxford was promulgated,[25] but in 1880 a proposal to rename the degree as a Master of Science was rejected along with a proposal to grant Masters of Natural Sciences a Master of Arts degree, in order to make them full members of the University.[26] This scheme would appear to have then been quietly dropped, with Oxford going on to award BAs and MAs in science.
A doctoral degree is the highest level of graduate degree. It is achieved by a little more than one percent of the population, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. As is the case with all higher education, the cost of a doctoral degree will vary by school, but can be a significant investment. Most students complete doctoral degree programs within ten years, although some finish in as little as four years.
Nursing students in a BSN-to-MSN program take classes in advanced health assessment, patient care, and evidence-based practice. Students also choose an MSN specialization, such as midwifery, anesthesiology, or gerontology. Many MSN programs also offer tracks for nurse practitioners. Most programs require at least 200 clinical hours, with some nurse practitioner programs requiring over 600 hours.
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