Students enrolled in this program will be broadly trained to undertake careers in managing water resources and in guiding or making water resource policy decisions. Graduates will be trained in public administration, policy theory, and will have practical experience in the professional arena, either through internships conducted as part of the degree program or (in some cases) through previous...
Forensic psychology involves applying psychology to the field of criminal investigation and law. Forensic psychologists typically have a master's in forensic psychology at the minimum, but many hold a PhD in clinical or counseling psychology. Forensic psychologists may work in various settings, including family courts, drug courts, criminal courts, or private consulting.
The Interdisciplinary Training Program in Auditory Neuroscience Program (TPAN) provides graduate student training and research experience at the interface of science and engineering, and in both humans and animal models. This training program prepares students for independent research careers that can advance our understanding of auditory system function using innovative tools and technologies. Graduates of this training program will develop creative solutions, devices and strategies to assist and prevent hearing loss in human patients.
There are also discipline-specific differences. A person applying for a doctoral program in Biblical studies or theology from a seminary or theological school must already hold a first professional degree in the field, known as the Master of Divinity degree (M.Div.). The M.Div. is a three-year master's program, however, a thesis is usually not required before completion. The M.Div. is the entry degree for the Doctor of Ministry degree (D.Min) or the Ph.D.
In the UK and countries whose education systems were founded on the British model, such as the US, the master's degree was for a long time the only postgraduate degree normally awarded, while in most European countries apart from the UK, the master's degree almost disappeared[citation needed]. In the second half of the 19th century, however, US universities began to follow the European model by awarding doctorates, and this practice spread to the UK. Conversely, most European universities now offer master's degrees parallelling or replacing their regular system, so as to offer their students better chances to compete in an international market dominated by the American model.[13]
Lato sensu graduate degrees: degrees that represent a specialization in a certain area and take from 1 to 2 years to complete. It can sometimes be used to describe a specialization level between a master's degree and an MBA. In that sense, the main difference is that the Lato Sensu courses tend to go deeper into the scientific aspects of the study field, while MBA programs tend to be more focused on the practical and professional aspects, being used more frequently to Business, Management and Administration areas. However, since there are no norms to regulate this, both names are used indiscriminately most of the time.

The Australian Qualifications Framework classifies master's degrees as research, coursework or extended. Research master's degrees typically take one to two years, and two thirds of their content consists of research, research training and independent study. Coursework master's degrees typically also last one to two years, and consist mainly of structured learning with some independent research and project work or practice-related learning. Extended master's degrees typically take three to four years and contain significant practice-related learning that must be developed in collaboration with relevant professional, statutory or regulatory bodies.[61]


Nursing students often continue working while earning their RN-to-MSN online. Many programs offer flexible scheduling options designed for working nurses. Students can often choose between full-time, part-time, or accelerated enrollment options. The best online RN-to-MSN programs offer a variety of specialization and enrollment options to meet the needs of nursing students and train nurses for advanced practice roles.
When negotiations fail, graduate employee unions sometimes go on strike. While graduate student unions can use the same types of strikes that other unions do, they have also made use of teach-ins, work-ins, marches, rallies, and grade strikes. In a grade strike, graduate students refuse to grade exams and papers and, if the strike lasts until the end of the academic term, also refuse to turn in final grades. Another form of job action is known as "work-to-rule", in which graduate student instructors work exactly as many hours as they are paid for and no more.
In the Indonesian higher education system, a master's degree (Indonesian: magister) is a postgraduate degree following a Bachelor's degree and preceding a Doctorate, requiring maximum of four years to complete[93]. Master's student is required to submit their thesis (Indonesian: tesis) for examination by two or three examiners. The available degrees include but are not limited to the following[94]:
In France, the master's degree (diplôme de master) takes two years and is worth 120 ECTS credits.[80] The French master's degree is the combination of two individual years : the master 1 (M1) and master 2 (M2), following the Bologna Process. Depending on the goal of the student (a doctorate or a professional career) the master 2 can also be called a "Master Recherche" (research master) and a "Master Professionnel" (professional master), each with different requirements. To obtain a national diploma for the master 2 requires a minimum of one year of study after the master 1.
Master of Science is generally abbreviated M.S. or MS in countries following United States usage and MSc in countries following British usage, where MS would refer to the degree of Master of Surgery. In Australia, some extended master's degrees use the title "doctor": Juris doctor and Doctors of Medical Practice, Physiotherapy, Dentistry, Optometry and Veterinary Practice. Despite their titles these are still master's degree and may not be referred to as doctoral degrees, nor may graduates use the title "doctor".[55]

The School of Biological and Population Health Sciences offers a graduate program leading to the Master of Science (MS) and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degrees in Nutrition. This program of study integrates multiple disciplines relevant to nutrition, including molecular, biochemical, physiological and clinical nutrition. The overall goal is for the student to...
The MS in Physical Science with Physics Concentration offers study of the relationship between matter and energy. This concentration is designed to serve the needs of those planning to advance in a teaching career, enter industrial or governmental work, or continue graduate education at the doctoral level.Students benefit from small classes, a student-oriented faculty, research opportunities, and a flexible curriculum. Offered on campus.
Competition for jobs within certain fields, such as the life sciences, is so great that almost all students now enter a second training period after graduate school called a postdoctoral fellowship. In total most life scientists will invest 12–14 years in low-paid training positions and only 14% will obtain tenure track jobs (Miller McCune, the real science gap). The average age at which life scientists obtain their first R01 grant to conduct independent research is now 42.
It was not until 1837 that separate examinations were reintroduced for the MA in England, at the newly established Durham University (even though, as in the ancient English universities, this was to confer full membership), to be followed in 1840 by the similarly new University of London, which was only empowered by its charter to grant degrees by examination.[13][14][15] However, by the middle of the century the MA as an examined second degree was again under threat, with Durham moving to awarding it automatically to those who gained honours in the BA in 1857, along the lines of the Oxbridge MA, and Edinburgh following the other Scottish universities in awarding the MA as its first degree, in place of the BA, from 1858.[16] At the same time, new universities were being established around the then British Empire along the lines of London, including examinations for the MA: the University of Sydney in Australia and the Queen's University of Ireland in 1850, and the Universities of Bombay (now the University of Mumbai), Madras and Calcutta in India in 1857.
The Weldon School's PhD options (post-BS or post-MS) in biomedical engineering are highly interdisciplinary in nature and involve faculty and laboratories at Purdue's College of Engineering, College of Science, School of Engineering and Technology, and the School of Veterinary Medicine on the West Lafayette campus as well as the Indiana University School of Medicine in Indianapolis. The combined faculty, staff, and facilities of the two campuses provide tremendous resources for our students. Doctoral program students work on translating discoveries into effective medical products, gaining a unique experience in converting theory to reality. These programs span modern biomedical engineering and build on a deep history of research at the Weldon School that has had significant industrial and clinical impact. Applicants with a master’s degree have the opportunity to transfer course work from that degree toward the PhD requirements, reducing the time to degree completion.
The graduate minor in Organizational Leadership provides an evidence-based exploration of organizational behavior, negotiations, team management, job design, evaluation and motivation of employees, human resource management, conflict management, employee stress, and work-life balance. These skills are applicable across a wide range of disciplines for both master's and Ph.D. graduate students....
Many departments, especially those in which students have research or teaching responsibilities, offer tuition-forgiveness and a stipend that pays for most expenses. At some elite universities, there may be a minimum stipend established for all Ph.D. students, as well as a tuition waiver. The terms of these stipends vary greatly, and may consist of a scholarship or fellowship, followed by teaching responsibilities. At many elite universities, these stipends have been increasing, in response both to student pressure and, especially, to competition among the elite universities for graduate students.
Master's degrees are designed to denote the mastery of a specific field of study or professional practice. A master's degree generally takes anywhere from one to four years to complete, but can take even longer in some cases. Many institutions also offer joint master's-bachelor's programs that allow you to complete both degrees in as little as five years.
Year two of a master's degree program typically involves completing core classes and related electives. This is also the time when they can gain work experience from an internship. Depending on the the field of study, this year may also involve preparing for a licensing exam.Some master's degree programs require a dissertation or thesis, which is a final research paper in which a student selects a topic and performs research related to it.
In some countries such as Finland and Sweden, there is the degree of Licentiate, which is more advanced than a master's degree but less so than a Doctorate. Credits required are about half of those required for a doctoral degree.[10] Coursework requirements are the same as for a doctorate, but the extent of original research required is not as high as for doctorate.[11][12] Medical doctors for example are typically licentiates instead of doctors.
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