Postgraduate degrees are more focused than undergraduate degrees, with classes centered around a specific field of study. Seeking a master's degree requires one to three years of additional study, while a doctoral degree requires four to six years. Some colleges offer both undergraduate and graduate degree paths, while other colleges only offer one or the other.
The Master of Arts, or MA degree, is a type of graduate degree which includes all arts and humanities disciplines as well as some social sciences. The M.A. degree is typically awarded in English, history, communication studies, international relations, international business administration, humanities, philosophy, and social sciences. Generally, an MA degree takes 2 years of full-time study for a non-thesis program, and longer for a thesis option; the Master of Arts (M.A.) may either be entirely course-based, entirely research-based or a combination. Admission to M.A. programs is usually contingent on the applicant having previously obtained their Bachelor’s degree which is often a Bachelor of Arts.
The online learning format helps working nurses complete a degree on their schedule. Nursing students choose between part- or full-time enrollment to fit their schedule, and many programs do not require set login times to complete coursework. Online nursing students can often complete clinical requirements at their current workplace. Accelerated programs let nurses with a BSN earn their MSN within 12 months.
Funding is available for some Ph.D./D.Phil. courses. As at the master's level, there is more funding available to those in the sciences than in other disciplines. Such funding generally comes from Research Councils such as the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC), Medical Research Council (MRC) and others. Masters students may also have the option of a Postgraduate loan introduced by the UK Government in 2016.

The University of Scranton has grounded its education in Catholic and Jesuit principles based on intellectual growth and integrity, all of which shape the online master’s and certificate programs. You can choose one of six degree programs from a selective institution ranked among the top 10 master’s universities in the North by U.S. News & World Report.
Integrated master's degrees (MChem, MEng, MMath, MPharm, MPhys, MPsych, MSci, etc.) are UK degrees that combine an undergraduate bachelor's degree course with an extra year at master's level (i.e. a total of four years in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and five years in Scotland). A 2011 survey of UK Higher Education Institutes found that 64% offered integrated master's course, mostly in STEM disciplines, with the most common degrees being MEng, MSci and MChem. 82% of respondents conferred only a master's degree for the course, while 9% conferred a bachelor's degree at the end of the bachelor's-level stage and a master's degree at the end of the course and a further 9% conferred both bachelor's and master's degrees at the end of the course.[56][57]
There has also been some confusion over the conversion of the different marking schemes between British, US, and Australian systems for the purpose of assessment for entry to graduate programmes. The Australian grades are divided into four categories: High Distinction, Distinction, Credit, and Pass (though many institutions have idiosyncratic grading systems). Assessment and evaluation based on the Australian system is not equivalent to British or US schemes because of the "low-marking" scheme used by Australian universities. For example, a British student who achieves 70+ will receive an A grade, whereas an Australian student with 70+ will receive a Distinction which is not the highest grade in the marking scheme.

In Baltic countries there is a two-year education program that offers a chance to gain a master's degree in interdisciplinary issues. The system offers an education in different areas, such as humanities, environmental and social issues, whilst paying specific consideration to the Baltic Sea area. It is a joint-degree program, which is part of a team effort with four universities. There is for example the University of Tartu in Estonia, Vytautas Magnus University in Lithuania and the University of Latvia. The educational programmes allow students to be mobile within the system, for example one semester may be taken in a confederate school without paying additional membership or tuition fees. Subsequently, after passing the qualifications provided, people may procure teaching qualifications and continue their scholastic research around doctoral studies, or carry on studying within their career in the private or public sector. Graduates of the program, within the Baltic Sea area are also given the chance to continue onwards with their studies within the postgraduate system if they have studied the social sciences or humanities field.


Master of Science in Communication Master of Science in Communication: Communication & Leadership Master of Science in Education in Special Education Master of Science in Education in Learning Design and Technology Master of Science in Communication: Health Communication Master of Public Health Master of Science in Engineering Technology (MSET) Master of Science in Hospitality and Tourism Management Master of Science in Education in Curriculum and Instruction - Intergrated Stem Master of Science in Education in Curriculum and Instruction - Educational Technology Concentration Master of Science in Education in Curriculum and Instruction - Gifted, Creative, and Talented Studies Concentration Master of Science in Education in Curriculum and Instruction - Mathematics Education Concentration Master of Science in Education in Curriculum and Instruction - English Language Learning Concentration
Masters: 2 years for completion. Usually serves as additional qualification for those seeking a differential on the job market (and maybe later a PhD), or for those who want to pursue a PhD. Most doctoral programs in Brazil require a master's degree (stricto sensu), meaning that a lato sensu degree is usually insufficient to start a doctoral program.
The Professional Science Master’s degree in Fisheries and Wildlife Administration (PSMFWA) provides advanced training for recently finished undergraduates looking to enter the workforce or early-career professionals employed by natural resources agencies, non-government organizations, and other entities seeking to advance their careers. The PSMFWA also provides an opportunity for employers to...
In the Political Science program, you'll learn the ideas of great political thinkers, controversies involved in issues as current as the front page of today's newspapers, and everything in between. You will have engaging discussions and debates from all points of view in class, with students and professors. You'll learn to think critically, write clearly and speak persuasively. You'll learn...

The interdisciplinary problems posed by natural and human induced changes in the earth's environment are among the most interesting, difficult, and important facing today's scientists and engineers. The environmental science and engineering option is an interdivisional program of study by biologists, chemists, earth scientists, engineers, and physicists to investigate the functioning of and interactions among the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere.
In some fields, research positions are more coveted than teaching positions because student researchers are typically paid to work on the dissertation they are required to complete anyway, while teaching is generally considered a distraction from one's work. Research positions are more typical of science disciplines; they are relatively uncommon in humanities disciplines, and where they exist, rarely allow the student to work on their own research. Science PhD students can apply for individual NRSA fellowships from the NIH or fellowships from private foundations. US universities often also offer competitive support from NIH-funded training programs. One example is the Biotechnology Training Program – University of Virginia. Departments often have funds for limited discretionary funding to supplement minor expenses such as research trips and travel to conferences.

The United Auto Workers (under the slogan "Uniting Academic Workers") and the American Federation of Teachers are two international unions that represent graduate employees. Private universities' administrations often oppose their graduate students when they try to form unions, arguing that students should be exempt from labor laws intended for "employees". In some cases unionization movements have met with enough student opposition to fail. At the schools where graduate employees are unionized, which positions are unionized vary. Sometimes only one set of employees will unionize (e.g. teaching assistants, residential directors); at other times, most or all will. Typically, fellowship recipients, usually not employed by their university, do not participate.


For the thesis option of a Master’s degree, students must complete at least 30 credit hours, which include a maximum of six credit hours of EEL 6971 (Research for Master’s Thesis). Thesis students must be registered for three credit hours of thesis (EEL 6971) in the term of graduation (Fall and Spring, and two credits in summer). EEL 6065, EEL 6910, EEL 6933, and EEL 6940 cannot be used to fulfill any credit requirements for the Master’s degree. The course requirements include a minimum of 18 hours of Electrical and Computer Engineering courses, excluding EEL 5905, 6905, and EGN 5949. CDA 5636 (Embedded Systems) can be used toward this course requirement by exception. This course requirement can only be fulfilled by completing ECE coursework at the University of Florida.
Be aware that the set of rules and constraints for your degree program are actually a combination of policies defined by the CS Department, the Graduate School, and sometimes other entities such as the Registrar's Office. This site presents these rules and constraints as you must satisfy them, without necessarily explaining who is the ultimate authority for any given one. It is possible that you will seek an exemption to some rule or requirement. This is when it becomes important to find out who "owns" that rule. In general, the Graduate School defines a framework for a degree program, and a Department fleshes this out. For example, the Graduate School requires that all PhD students take a Preliminary Exam and a Final Exam. The Department is free to define the mechanics of these exams, but not their existance, nor the scheduling process. So for example, it is a Graduate School rule that there must be a certain minimum amount of time between a Preliminary Exam and a Final Exam. So only the Graduate School would be able to grant an exemption (if they were so inclined).
The program of Comparative Health Sciences is a multi-disciplinary program offering graduate training towards M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. The program encourages applicants with interest in complex contemporaneous issues that require multi-disciplinary approach to be addressed. Faculty involved in the program have interests ranging from microbiology, ecology, immunology, nutrition, food science,...
A growing number of nursing schools offer online ADN-to-MSN programs for nurses with an associate degree in nursing. These programs, often called RN-to-MSN programs, require a current, unencumbered RN license to gain admission. Applicants also provide proof of an ADN degree that meets the program's minimum GPA requirement. During the application process, some ADN-to-MSN programs ask for test scores, letters of recommendation, a resume, and a statement of purpose.
A research-based master’s degree program at the Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering is available for Indiana University School of Medicine medical students seeking to earn both MD and MS BME degrees. The seamless integration of the timelines for the two degrees allows these students to complete both degrees in five years. The MS BME/MD program leverages the students’ clinical training and medical school coursework to advance innovative engineering solutions for challenges in healthcare delivery. Significant areas for translational research projects include implantable medical devices, engineered tissues and biomaterials, point-of-care diagnostics, advanced medical imaging, and systems engineering of healthcare delivery. Students earning this degree gain firsthand knowledge of medical technology innovation and strategies for clinical translation. They will strengthen their ability to pursue medical research, to facilitate clinical testing of new therapies, and to collaborate effectively with the biomedical industry.
Master's candidates undertaking research are typically required to complete a thesis comprising some original research and ranging from seventy to two-hundred pages. Some fields may require candidates to study at least one foreign language if they have not already earned sufficient foreign-language credits. Some faculties require candidates to defend their thesis, but many do not. Those that do not often have a requirement of taking two additional courses, minimum, in lieu of preparing a thesis.
Upon completion of at least two years' research and coursework as a postgraduate student, a candidate must demonstrate truthful and original contributions to his or her specific field of knowledge within a frame of academic excellence.[17] The Master and Doctoral candidate's work should be presented in a dissertation or thesis prepared under the supervision of a tutor or director, and reviewed by a postgraduate Committee. This Committee should be composed of examiners external to the program, and at least one of them should also be external to the institution.[18]
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