Funding is available for some Ph.D./D.Phil. courses. As at the master's level, there is more funding available to those in the sciences than in other disciplines. Such funding generally comes from Research Councils such as the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC), Medical Research Council (MRC) and others. Masters students may also have the option of a Postgraduate loan introduced by the UK Government in 2016.
Competition for jobs within certain fields, such as the life sciences, is so great that almost all students now enter a second training period after graduate school called a postdoctoral fellowship. In total most life scientists will invest 12–14 years in low-paid training positions and only 14% will obtain tenure track jobs (Miller McCune, the real science gap). The average age at which life scientists obtain their first R01 grant to conduct independent research is now 42.
This concentration is grounded in the recreational, cultural, informational, and educational needs of 21st century youth from birth through the teen years. Students study the selection of a broad range of resources in all media formats to reflect awareness of, and sensitivity to, the social and cultural needs of all youth and the design of reader’s advisory services, library programs, and literacy activities in public and school library settings.

The Interdisciplinary Training Program in Auditory Neuroscience Program (TPAN) provides graduate student training and research experience at the interface of science and engineering, and in both humans and animal models. This training program prepares students for independent research careers that can advance our understanding of auditory system function using innovative tools and technologies. Graduates of this training program will develop creative solutions, devices and strategies to assist and prevent hearing loss in human patients.


For Masters students, funding is generally available to first-year students whose transcripts reflect exceptionally high grades; this funding can also be obtained in the second year of studies. Funding for Ph.D. students comes from a variety of sources, and many universities waive tuition fees for doctoral candidates (This may also occur for masters students of some universities). Funding is available in the form of scholarships, bursaries and other awards, both private and public.
Funding for postgraduate study in the UK is awarded competitively, and usually is disseminated by institution (in the form of a certain allocation of studentships for a given year) rather than directly to individuals. There are a number of scholarships for master's courses, but these are relatively rare and dependent on the course and class of undergraduate degree obtained (usually requiring at least a lower second). Most master's students are self-funded.
Ph.D. candidates undertaking research must typically complete a thesis, or dissertation, consisting of original research representing a significant contribution to their field, and ranging from two-hundred to five-hundred pages. Most Ph.D. candidates will be required to sit comprehensive examinations—examinations testing general knowledge in their field of specialization—in their second or third year as a prerequisite to continuing their studies, and must defend their thesis as a final requirement. Some faculties require candidates to earn sufficient credits in a third or fourth foreign language; for example, most candidates in modern Japanese topics must demonstrate ability in English, Japanese, and Mandarin, while candidates in pre-modern Japanese topics must demonstrate ability in English, Japanese, Classical Chinese, and Classical Japanese language.
The QAA released the first "framework for higher education qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland" in January 2001. This specified learning outcomes for M-level (master's) degrees and advised that the title "Master" should only be used for qualifications that met those learning outcomes in full. It addressed many of the Dearing Report's concerns, specifying that shorter courses at H-level (honours), e.g. conversion courses, should be styled Graduate Diploma or Graduate Certificate rather than as master's degrees, but confirmed that the extended undergraduate degrees were master's degrees, saying that "Some Masters degrees in science and engineering are awarded after extended undergraduate programmes that last, typically, a year longer than Honours degree programmes". It also addressed the Oxbridge MA issue, noting that "the MAs granted by the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge are not academic qualifications".[43] The first "framework for qualifications of Higher Education Institutes in Scotland", also published in January 2001, used the same qualifications descriptors, adding in credit values that specified that a stand-alone master should be 180 credits and a "Masters (following an integrated programme from undergraduate to Masters level study)" should be 600 credits with a minimum of 120 at M-level. It was specified that the title "Master" should only be used for qualifications that met the learning outcomes and credit definitions, although it was noted that "A small number of universities in Scotland have a long tradition of labelling certain first degrees as 'MA'. Reports of Agency reviews of such provision will relate to undergraduate benchmarks and will make it clear that the title reflects Scottish custom and practice, and that any positive judgement on standards should not be taken as implying that the outcomes of the programme were at postgraduate level."[44]

The nineteenth century saw a great expansion in the variety of master's degrees offered. At the start of the century, the only master's degree was the MA, and this was normally awarded without any further study or examination. The Master in Surgery degree was introduced by the University of Glasgow in 1815.[8] By 1861 this had been adopted throughout Scotland as well as by Cambridge and Durham in England and the University of Dublin in Ireland.[9] When the Philadelphia College of Surgeons was established in 1870, it too conferred the Master of Surgery, "the same as that in Europe".[10]

Non-master's level master's degrees The ancient universities of the UK and Ireland have traditionally awarded MAs in a different manner to that usual today. The Scottish MA is a bachelor's-level qualification offered by the ancient universities of Scotland. The Oxbridge MA is not an academic qualification; it is granted without further examination to those who have gained a BA from Oxford or Cambridge Universities in England,[56] and the MA of Trinity College Dublin in Ireland is granted to its graduates in a similar manner.[58]


It's essential for prospective students to search for online master's degree programs that are accredited. An accredited master's degree program has gone through a rigorous process to verify that it provides quality education to students. Enrolling in an accredited master's degree program is a critical first step in helping a student qualify for financial aid. Having a degree from an accredited online or traditional institution can also make a candidate more competitive in the job market.


The MS non-thesis final exam will be administered each semester and students will complete their mock job interview during their second semester of enrollment. Students will register for their mock job interview via a registration web form and will select a preferred research division from which a faculty member will be assigned to conduct the interview. After the registration period closes, the student will receive a faculty assignment from the ECE Graduate Advisor. Each student will be responsible for emailing their assigned faculty member to set up a mock job interview. Interviews will need to be completed before the stated deadline for the semester.
Many graduate programs require students to pass one or several examinations in order to demonstrate their competence as scholars.[6] In some departments, a comprehensive examination is often required in the first year of doctoral study, and is designed to test a student's background undergraduate-level knowledge. Examinations of this type are more common in the sciences and some social sciences but relatively unknown in most humanities disciplines.
This site presents the policies and procedures of the graduate program in the Department of Computer Science at Virginia Tech. The links at the right will guide you through the material. Mechanics that are common to all of the degrees are discussed in the Administrivia section. The rules specific to a given degree option, certificate, or program can be found under Degrees and Certificates.
This 18-credit graduate credential will help prepare you to link scientists, decision-makers, and stakeholders when managing recreational and commercial fisheries and fish habitat and contribute towards the general conservation of aquatic resources.  Through quality courses, you can practice skills in biology, economy, law and social science as you deal with issues across a wide range of...
In 1900, Dartmouth College introduced the Master of Commercial Science (MCS), first awarded in 1902. This was the first master's degree in business, the forerunner of the modern MBA.[33] The idea quickly crossed the Atlantic, with Manchester establishing a Faculty of Commerce, awarding Bachelor and Master of Commerce degrees, in 1903.[34] Over the first half of the century the automatic master's degrees for honours graduates vanished as honours degrees became the standard undergraduate qualification in the UK. In the 1960s, new Scottish universities (with the exception of Dundee, which inherited the undergraduate MA from St Andrews) reintroduced the BA as their undergraduate degree in Arts, restoring the MA to its position as a postgraduate qualification. Oxford and Cambridge retained their MAs, but renamed many of their postgraduate bachelor's degrees in the higher faculties as master's degrees, e.g. the Cambridge LLB became the LLM in 1982,[35] and the Oxford BLitt, BPhil (except in philosophy) and BSc became the MLitt, MPhil and MSc.[36]
Master's candidates undertaking research are typically required to complete a thesis comprising some original research and ranging from seventy to two-hundred pages. Some fields may require candidates to study at least one foreign language if they have not already earned sufficient foreign-language credits. Some faculties require candidates to defend their thesis, but many do not. Those that do not, often have a requirement of taking two additional courses, at minimum, in lieu of preparing a thesis.
The graduate minor in Organizational Leadership provides an evidence-based exploration of organizational behavior, negotiations, team management, job design, evaluation and motivation of employees, human resource management, conflict management, employee stress, and work-life balance. These skills are applicable across a wide range of disciplines for both master's and Ph.D. graduate students....
In some countries such as Finland and Sweden, there is the degree of Licentiate, which is more advanced than a master's degree but less so than a Doctorate. Credits required are about half of those required for a doctoral degree.[10] Coursework requirements are the same as for a doctorate, but the extent of original research required is not as high as for doctorate.[11][12] Medical doctors for example are typically licentiates instead of doctors.
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