Within the sciences and some social sciences, previous research experience may be important.[6][9] By contrast, within most humanities disciplines, an example of academic writing normally suffices. Many universities require a personal statement (sometimes called Statement of purpose or Letter of Intent), which may include indications of the intended area(s) of research;[7] how detailed this statement is or whether it is possible to change one's focus of research depends strongly on the discipline and department to which the student is applying.
Admission to a master's (course-based, also called "non-thesis") program generally requires a bachelor's degree in a related field, with sufficiently high grades usually ranging from B+ and higher (note that different schools have different letter grade conventions, and this requirement may be significantly higher in some faculties), and recommendations from professors. Admission to a high-quality thesis-type master's program generally requires an honours bachelor or Canadian bachelor with honours, samples of the student's writing as well as a research thesis proposal. Some programs require Graduate Record Exams (GRE) in both the general examination and the examination for its specific discipline, with minimum scores for admittance. At English-speaking universities, applicants from countries where English is not the primary language are required to submit scores from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). Nevertheless, some French speaking universities, like HEC Montreal, also require candidates to submit TOEFL score or to pass their own English test.
Use our subject selection filter at the top of this page or start with the list below to find some of the most awarded degrees (by subject). You will find accredited M.A., M.S., M.F.A., M.B.A., P.S.M. and other specific master degree programs with the help of our subject selection and sponsored program listings. The broad list of masters degree programs include the following subjects:

Graduate students in biology come with very diverse undergraduate preparation—majors in physics, chemistry, mathematics, or psychology, as well as in biology and its various branches. The aims of the graduate program are to provide, for each student, individual depth of experience and competence in a particular chosen major specialty; perception of the nature and logic of biology as a whole; sufficient strength in basic science to allow continued self-education after formal training has been completed and thus to keep in the forefront of changing fields; and the motivation to serve his or her field productively through a long career.  In accordance with these aims, the graduate study program in biology includes the following parts: (a) the major program, which is to provide the student with early and intense original research experience in a self-selected subject of biology, supplemented with advanced course work and independent study in this subject; and (b) a program of course work designed to provide well-rounded and integrated training in biology and the appropriate basic sciences, 
which is adjusted to special interests and needs. An individual program will be recommended to each student in a meeting with the student’s advisory committee.
Be aware that the set of rules and constraints for your degree program are actually a combination of policies defined by the CS Department, the Graduate School, and sometimes other entities such as the Registrar's Office. This site presents these rules and constraints as you must satisfy them, without necessarily explaining who is the ultimate authority for any given one. It is possible that you will seek an exemption to some rule or requirement. This is when it becomes important to find out who "owns" that rule. In general, the Graduate School defines a framework for a degree program, and a Department fleshes this out. For example, the Graduate School requires that all PhD students take a Preliminary Exam and a Final Exam. The Department is free to define the mechanics of these exams, but not their existance, nor the scheduling process. So for example, it is a Graduate School rule that there must be a certain minimum amount of time between a Preliminary Exam and a Final Exam. So only the Graduate School would be able to grant an exemption (if they were so inclined).
At many universities, graduate students are employed by their university to teach classes or do research. While all graduate employees are graduate students, many graduate students are not employees. MBA students, for example, usually pay tuition and do not have paid teaching or research positions. In many countries graduate employees have collectively organized labor unions in order to bargain a contract with their university. In Canada, for example, almost all graduate employees are members of a CUPE local.
Applied Physics at Caltech is built on the foundations of quantum mechanicstistical physics, electromagnetic theory, mechanics, and advanced mathematics. The comparatively small size of Caltech coupled with its great strength in both the pure sciences and engineering make it possible to have a faculty with a wide interest in the application of modern physics to technology, without losing close interaction with "pure subjects."
In all cases, comprehensive exams are normally both stressful and time consuming and must be passed to be allowed to proceed on to the dissertation. Passing such examinations allows the student to stay, begin doctoral research, and rise to the status of a doctoral candidate, while failing usually results in the student leaving the program or re-taking the test after some time has passed (usually a semester or a year). Some schools have an intermediate category, passing at the master's level, which allows the student to leave with a master's without having completed a master's dissertation.
Many graduate programs require students to pass one or several examinations in order to demonstrate their competence as scholars.[6] In some departments, a comprehensive examination is often required in the first year of doctoral study, and is designed to test a student's background undergraduate-level knowledge. Examinations of this type are more common in the sciences and some social sciences but relatively unknown in most humanities disciplines.

An MSN helps nurses advance their careers and increase their earning potential. During an MSN program, nursing students build valuable clinical skills while completing core nursing classes and specialization coursework. Common MSN classes include advanced health assessment, advanced pharmacology, and nursing research. Within a specialization, MSN students complete additional coursework and clinical hours to become a nurse practitioner, nurse midwife, or another advanced practice registered nurse.


The Bioengineering Interdisciplinary Training in Diabetes Research Program (BTDR) is a cross-disciplinary doctoral program is designed to develop the next generation interdisciplinary workforce that innovates, designs, and translates bioengineering technologies aimed at preventing and treating diabetes, metabolic diseases, and their complications. The program lies at the interface of the Weldon School, College of Veterinary Medicine, and Indiana University School of Medicine, allowing students to matriculate via BME, IBSC, or MSTP pathways toward PHD BME and MD-PHD BME degrees. This program allows teams of engineers, physical scientists, computational scientists, analytical chemists, pharmacologists, physiologists, and endocrinologists to work seamlessly across traditional boundaries on common goal-oriented projects (bio-artificial pancreas, designer drugs, electroceuticals, integrated care devices). Trainees learn to operate beyond hypothesis-driven research, incorporating principles and practices of engineering design, standardization and validation, regulatory policy, technology translation and entrepreneurship.
Currently, the department is concentrated primarily on earthquake engineering, a field in which Caltech researchers have been important contributors since the 1920's. Research is currently being conducted in areas such as seismic early warning, characterization of near-source motion in earthquakes, soil-structure interaction, nonlinear finite element analysis of civil structures, structural health monitoring and earthquake loss-estimation.
Master's degrees are designed to denote the mastery of a specific field of study or professional practice. A master's degree generally takes anywhere from one to four years to complete, but can take even longer in some cases. Many institutions also offer joint master's-bachelor's programs that allow you to complete both degrees in as little as five years.

Admission to a master's degree normally requires successful completion of study at bachelor's degree level either (for postgraduate degrees) as a stand-alone degree or (for integrated degrees) as part of an integrated scheme of study. In countries where the bachelor's degree with honours is the standard undergraduate degree, this is often the normal entry qualification.[59][72] In addition, students will normally have to write a personal statement and, in the arts and humanities, will often have to submit a portfolio of work.[73]
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree generally is required, and it is normally considered to be part of higher education. In North America, this level is typically referred to as graduate school (or sometimes colloquially as grad school).
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