The old Spanish degrees of Licenciado (Licenciate), Arquitecto (Architect) and Ingeniero (Engineer) are also equivalent to master's degrees. They were integrated programmes of study that combined first and second cycles and led to a second cycle qualification. The Spanish government issued a royal decree in 2014 establishing the official equivalences between the Spanish pre-Bologna degrees and the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) levels.[92] Most (if not all) Licenciado, Arquitecto and Ingeniero degrees were placed in level 7 (Master) of the EQF. These programmes have been phased out and replaced with the new Bologna programmes of Máster, to be completed after completion of a programme of Grado (Bachelor's).
CMS is home to outstanding students and researchers who share a passion for science and engineering, as well as a drive to investigate the most challenging, fundamental problems in computation and information.  The CMS program is a unique, new program that provides students with a cross-cutting perspective on optimization, algorithms, learning, statistics, and networks.
Doctoral students generally spend roughly their first two to three years taking coursework and begin research by their second year if not before. Many master's and all specialist students will perform research culminating in a paper, presentation, and defense of their research. This is called the master's thesis (or, for Educational Specialist students, the specialist paper). However, many US master's degree programs do not require a master's thesis, focusing instead primarily on coursework or on "practicals" or "workshops". Some students complete a final culminating project or "capstone" rather than a thesis. Such "real-world" experience may typically require a candidate work on a project alone or in a team as a consultant, or consultants, for an outside entity approved or selected by the academic institution and under faculty supervision.
While most graduate programs will have a similar list of general admission requirements, the importance placed on each type of requirement can vary drastically between graduate schools, departments within schools, and even programs within departments. The best way to determine how a graduate program will weigh admission materials is to ask the person in charge of graduate admissions at the particular program being applied to. Admission to graduate school requires a bachelor's degree. High grades in one's field of study are important—grades outside the field less so. The Graduate Record Examination standardized test is required by almost all graduate schools, while other additional standardised tests (such as the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) and Graduate Record Examination (GRE) Subject Tests) scores may be required by some institutions or programs.[6][7] In addition, good letters of recommendation from undergraduate instructors are often essential,[8] as strong recommendation letters from mentors or supervisors of undergraduate research experience provide evidence that the applicant can perform research and can handle the rigors of a graduate school education.
Ph.D. candidates undertaking research must typically complete a thesis, or dissertation, consisting of original research representing a significant contribution to their field, and ranging from two-hundred to five-hundred pages. Most Ph.D. candidates will be required to sit comprehensive examinations—examinations testing general knowledge in their field of specialization—in their second or third year as a prerequisite to continuing their studies, and must defend their thesis as a final requirement. Some faculties require candidates to earn sufficient credits in a third or fourth foreign language; for example, most candidates in modern Japanese topics must demonstrate ability in English, Japanese, and Mandarin, while candidates in pre-modern Japanese topics must demonstrate ability in English, Japanese, Classical Chinese, and Classical Japanese.

In addition to traditional "degree-seeking" applications for admission, many schools allow students to apply as "non-degree-seeking".[13] Admission to the non-degree-seeking category is usually restricted primarily to those who may benefit professionally from additional study at the graduate level. For example, current elementary, middle, and high school teachers wishing to gain re-certification credit most commonly apply as non-degree-seeking students.
There are two types of postgraduate; lato sensu (Latin for "in broad sense"), which generally means a specialization course in one area of study, mostly addressed to professional practice, and stricto sensu (Latin for "in narrow sense"), which means a Master of Science or Doctorate, encompassing broader and profound activities of scientific research.[27]
When negotiations fail, graduate employee unions sometimes go on strike. While graduate student unions can use the same types of strikes that other unions do, they have also made use of teach-ins, work-ins, marches, rallies, and grade strikes. In a grade strike, graduate students refuse to grade exams and papers and, if the strike lasts until the end of the academic term, also refuse to turn in final grades. Another form of job action is known as "work-to-rule", in which graduate student instructors work exactly as many hours as they are paid for and no more.
Year two of a master's degree program typically involves completing core classes and related electives. This is also the time when they can gain work experience from an internship. Depending on the the field of study, this year may also involve preparing for a licensing exam.Some master's degree programs require a dissertation or thesis, which is a final research paper in which a student selects a topic and performs research related to it.
Postgraduate degrees in Nigeria include M.A., M.Sc., M.Ed., M.Eng., LL.M, M.Arch., M.Agric., M.Phil., PhD. The master's degree typically take 18–36 months with students undertaking coursework and presenting seminars and a dissertation. The doctoral degree is for a minimum of 36 months and may involve coursework alongside the presentation of seminars and a research thesis. Award of postgraduate degrees requires a defence of the completed research before a panel of examiners comprising external and internal examiners, Head of Department, Departmental Postgraduate Coordinator, Representative(s) of Faculty and Postgraduate School, and any other member of staff with a PhD in the department/faculty.
Funding is available for some Ph.D./D.Phil. courses. As at the master's level, there is more funding available to those in the sciences than in other disciplines. Such funding generally comes from Research Councils such as the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC), Medical Research Council (MRC) and others. Masters students may also have the option of a Postgraduate loan introduced by the UK Government in 2016.
Lato sensu graduate degrees: degrees that represent a specialization in a certain area and take from 1 to 2 years to complete. It can sometimes be used to describe a specialization level between a master's degree and an MBA. In that sense, the main difference is that the Lato Sensu courses tend to go deeper into the scientific aspects of the study field, while MBA programs tend to be more focused on the practical and professional aspects, being used more frequently to Business, Management and Administration areas. However, since there are no norms to regulate this, both names are used indiscriminately most of the time.
Students pursuing a graduate program can search our thorough list of accredited online master’s degrees, including colleges and degree programs. Our best online master's list highlights the top schools, based on tuition rates and alumni salaries reported by PayScale. Our comprehensive list of master’s programs includes accredited programs in fields like accounting, computer science, healthcare administration, management, nursing, and nutrition, and allows prospective students to learn how many online programs are available in their desired field.
If your ultimate goal is to work directly with people to help them overcome mental illness, then a specialty area focused on mental health and social services would be a good option for you. While there are some entry-level positions in this field for those with a master's degree in psychology, those holding with a PhD or PsyD will find more plentiful job opportunities.
When negotiations fail, graduate employee unions sometimes go on strike. While graduate student unions can use the same types of strikes that other unions do, they have also made use of teach-ins, work-ins, marches, rallies, and grade strikes. In a grade strike, graduate students refuse to grade exams and papers and, if the strike lasts until the end of the academic term, also refuse to turn in final grades. Another form of job action is known as "work-to-rule", in which graduate student instructors work exactly as many hours as they are paid for and no more.
Postgraduate studies in Israel require the completion of a bachelor's degree and is dependent upon this title's grades; see Education in Israel #Higher education. Degrees awarded are the M.A., M.Sc., M.B.A. and LLM; the Technion awards a non-thesis M.Eng. [95] There also exists "a direct track" doctorate degree, which lasts four to five years. Taking this route, students prepare a preliminary research paper during their first year, after which they must pass an exam before being allowed to proceed, at which point they are awarded a master's degree.
Many departments, especially those in which students have research or teaching responsibilities, offer tuition-forgiveness and a stipend that pays for most expenses. At some elite universities, there may be a minimum stipend established for all Ph.D. students, as well as a tuition waiver. The terms of these stipends vary greatly, and may consist of a scholarship or fellowship, followed by teaching responsibilities. At many elite universities, these stipends have been increasing, in response both to student pressure and, especially, to competition among the elite universities for graduate students.
The Institute of Medicine’s “Vison 2020” recommends all clinical nurses hold a B.S.N., and the ACN backs their recommendation. This means that top healthcare organizations aren’t considering hiring clinical nurses without at least the B.S.N. credential. Advanced nursing roles call for a master’s or doctorate-level degree. Like many things over time, the nursing industry has expanded beyond the skills and knowledge an R.N. credential alone provides. To maintain a lifelong nursing career, or to work in one of the many new nursing positions, you need an advanced nursing degree.Nursing Degree Options.If you’re wondering what program is best for you, think about the responsibilities you enjoy as a nurse as well as what you’re naturally interested in learning.

The Master of Business Administration, or MBA degree,  is a master’s degree in business administration (management) that actually originated in the U.S. as a scientific approach to management; it is both a terminal degree and a professional degree. Core topics in MBA programs commonly cover accounting, finance, marketing, human resources, operations.


In Brazil, a Bachelor's, Licenciate or Technologist degree is required in order to enter a graduate program, called pós-graduação. Generally, in order to be accepted, the candidate must have above average grades and it is highly recommended to be initiated on scientific research through government programs on undergraduate areas, as a complement to usual coursework.
The Chicago School is a not-for-profit, regionally accredited institution with more than 4,285 students at campuses across the country and online.  TCSPP has been an innovator in the field of psychology and related behavioral science for more than 30 years.  TCSPP offers more than 20 degree programs and a wealth of opportunities for international experiences.
There are 87 public universities in France, and also some private universities, and they are based upon the European education ladder including bachelors, Masters, and Ph.D.s. Students gain each degree though the successful completion of a predetermined number of years in education, gaining credits via the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS). There are over 300 doctoral programs that collaborate with 1200 research laboratories and centers. Each degree has a certain set of national diplomas that are all of equal value, irrespective of where they were issued. There are also other diplomas that are exclusive to France and are very hard to attain.
There are 87 public universities in France, and also some private universities, and they are based upon the European education ladder including bachelors, Masters, and Ph.D.s. Students gain each degree though the successful completion of a predetermined number of years in education, gaining credits via the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS). There are over 300 doctoral programs that collaborate with 1200 research laboratories and centers. Each degree has a certain set of national diplomas that are all of equal value, irrespective of where they were issued. There are also other diplomas that are exclusive to France and are very hard to attain.
^ C. E. Whiting (29 June 1937). "Durham University Centenary". Yorkshire Post. Retrieved 8 August 2016 – via British Newspaper Archive. The M.A. degree at Oxford and Cambridge had degenerated, and was granted to Bachelors of three years' standing on the payment of certain fees. At Durham the B.A. had to keep residence for three extra terms, and to pass what seems have been an honours examination in order to proceed to the Master's degree, and for a number of years classes were awarded in the M.A. examination.
Students must usually declare their research goal or submit a research proposal upon entering graduate school; in the case of master's degrees, there will be some flexibility (that is, one is not held to one's research proposal, although major changes, for example from premodern to modern history, are discouraged). In the case of Ph.D.s, the research direction is usually known as it will typically follow the direction of the master's research.
Postgraduate degrees are more focused than undergraduate degrees, with classes centered around a specific field of study. Seeking a master's degree requires one to three years of additional study, while a doctoral degree requires four to six years. Some colleges offer both undergraduate and graduate degree paths, while other colleges only offer one or the other.
In 1983, the Engineering Council issued a "'Statement on enhanced and extended undergraduate engineering degree courses", proposing the establishment of a four-year first degree (Master of Engineering).[37][38] These were up and running by the mid 1980s and were followed in the early 1990s by the MPhys for physicists and since then integrated master's degrees in other sciences such as MChem, MMath, and MGeol, and in some institutions general or specific MSci (Master in Science) and MArts (Master in Arts) degrees. This development was noted by the Dearing Report into UK Higher Education in 1997, which called for the establishment of a national framework of qualifications and identified five different routes to master's degrees:[39]
While most graduate programs will have a similar list of general admission requirements, the importance placed on each type of requirement can vary drastically between graduate schools, departments within schools, and even programs within departments. The best way to determine how a graduate program will weigh admission materials is to ask the person in charge of graduate admissions at the particular program being applied to. Admission to graduate school requires a bachelor's degree. High grades in one's field of study are important—grades outside the field less so. The Graduate Record Examination standardized test is required by almost all graduate schools, while other additional standardised tests (such as the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) and Graduate Record Examination (GRE) Subject Tests) scores may be required by some institutions or programs.[6][7] In addition, good letters of recommendation from undergraduate instructors are often essential,[8] as strong recommendation letters from mentors or supervisors of undergraduate research experience provide evidence that the applicant can perform research and can handle the rigors of a graduate school education.
Industrial Engineering is the application of science, mathematics, and engineering methods to complex system integration and operation. Because the systems with which they work is so large and complex, industrial engineers (IEs) must develop expertise in a wide variety of disciplines, the ability to work well with people, and a broad, systems perspective.

The écoles doctorales ("Doctoral schools") are educational structures similar in focus to graduate schools, but restricted at PhD level. These schools have the responsibilities of providing students with a structured doctoral training in a disciplinary field. The field of the school is related to the strength of the university: while some have two or three schools (typically "Arts and Humanities" and "Natural and Technological Sciences"), others have more specialized schools (History, Aeronautics, etc.).


Geographic Information Science (GIScience or GISci) includes the existing technologies and research areas of geographic information systems (GIS), cartography, remote sensing, photogrammetry, surveying (also termed geomatics in the U.S.), and quantitative spatial analysis. GIScience therefore addresses fundamental issues in the use of digital technology to handle...


Doctoral students generally spend roughly their first two to three years doing coursework, and begin research by their second year if not before. Many master's and all specialist students will perform research culminating in a paper, presentation, and defense of their research. This is called the master's thesis (or, for Educational Specialist students, the specialist paper). However, many US master's degree programs do not require a master's thesis, focusing instead primarily on course work or on "practicals" or "workshops." Such "real-world" experience may typically require a candidate work on a project alone or in a team as a consultant, or consultants, for an outside entity approved or selected by the academic institution, and under faculty supervision.
Strengthen your competitive edge with a Professional Master’s Degree in Biomedical Engineering. Ideal for those seeking a career in the healthcare industry, the curriculum emphasizes biomedical device development, but can be tailored to support your individual career interests. Students earning this degree will gain knowledge of the design and development of biomedical products and processes; sharpen their ability to make well-reasoned, ethical and socially responsible engineering decisions; increase their communication, negotiation, and leadership skills; and gain a practical understanding of regulatory processes for the healthcare industry. Students may choose one of two concentrations: Biomedical Device Development or Biomedical Device Development with Industry Immersion. 
Graduate students often declare their intended degree (master's or doctorate) in their applications. In some cases, master's programs allow successful students to continue toward the doctorate degree. Additionally, doctoral students who have advanced to candidacy but not filed a dissertation ("ABD", for "all but dissertation") often receive master's degrees and an additional master's called a Master of Philosophy (MPhil) or a Candidate of Philosophy (C.Phil.) degree. The master's component of a doctorate program often requires one or two years.
Oregon State University offers both Master and PhD Public Policy degrees for students interested in the study and practice of policy about issues critical to Oregonians and the world, drawing on the traditional strengths and emerging signature areas of OSU. While there is a science of policy including theoretical and methodological approaches that we expect students to master, the discipline...
Students must usually declare their research goal or submit a research proposal upon entering graduate school; in the case of master's degrees, there will be some flexibility (that is, one is not held to one's research proposal, although major changes, for example from premodern to modern history, are discouraged). In the case of Ph.D.s, the research direction is usually known as it will typically follow the direction of the master's research.
The combined BS/MS is a special program for outstanding current Weldon School undergraduates who have established research relationships with faculty members. This program was created to provide further training to undergraduates who have been conducting research in the labs of our faculty and who strongly desire to continue their research toward an MS or PhD degree. The ultimate plan of study is intended to prepare students for PhD level graduate studies or research-oriented industry positions. The proposed program enables students to complete the BS and the MS in a total of five, rather than the typical six, years.

The Professional Science Master, or PSM degree, is a graduate degree intended to allow students to pursue advance training in science or mathematics at the same time as developing workplace skills. PSM programs tend to be interdisciplinary, can take about 2 years of full time study, and usually involve an internship. Often, you can find the PSM degree in forensic science, computational chemistry, applied mathematics and bioinformatics programs (STEM fields).

Nursing students in a BSN-to-MSN program take classes in advanced health assessment, patient care, and evidence-based practice. Students also choose an MSN specialization, such as midwifery, anesthesiology, or gerontology. Many MSN programs also offer tracks for nurse practitioners. Most programs require at least 200 clinical hours, with some nurse practitioner programs requiring over 600 hours.


From the late Middle Ages until the nineteenth century, the pattern of degrees was therefore to have a bachelor's and master's degree in the lower faculties and to have bachelor's and doctorates in the higher faculties. In the United States, the first master's degrees (Magister Artium, or Master of Arts) were awarded at Harvard University soon after its foundation.[4] In Scotland, the pre-Reformation universities (St Andrews, Glasgow and Aberdeen) developed so that the Scottish MA became their first degree, while in Oxford, Cambridge and Trinity College, Dublin, the MA was awarded to BA graduates of a certain standing without further examination from the late seventeenth century, its main purpose being to confer full membership of the university.[5] At Harvard the 1700 regulations required that candidates for the master's degree had to pass a public examination,[6] but by 1835 this was awarded Oxbridge-style three years after the BA.[7]
The purpose of the School Counseling program is to prepare counselors to provide support services at the elementary, middle and/or high school levels. Our curriculum is designed for individuals wanting to make a positive difference in the lives of children and adolescents. With about half of our courses offered online, our program is designed to meet the needs of full-time students and working professionals.
Graduate students may take out student loans, but instead they often work as teaching or research assistants. Students often agree, as a condition of acceptance to a programme, not to devote more than twelve hours per week to work or outside interests. Various universities in Canada have different policies in terms of how much funding is available. This funding may also be different within a university in each of the disciplines. Many universities offer Evening MBA programs where students are able to work full-time while obtaining an MBA through evening classes, which allows them to pay their way through school.[4]
Master of Science, Instructional Specialist - Elementary Content concentration. The Instruction Specialist program is intended for the teaching practitioner in settings from early childhood through adolescence and young adulthood. This concentration allows the practitioner to strengthen their teaching in core elementary subject areas. Offered online and at the Olathe school district.
The écoles doctorales ("Doctoral schools") are educational structures similar in focus to graduate schools, but restricted at PhD level. These schools have the responsibilities of providing students with a structured doctoral training in a disciplinary field. The field of the school is related to the strength of the university: while some have two or three schools (typically "Arts and Humanities" and "Natural and Technological Sciences"), others have more specialized schools (History, Aeronautics, etc.).
Master's degrees are commonly titled using the form 'Master of ...', where either a faculty (typically Arts or Science) or a field (Engineering, Physics, Chemistry, Business Administration, etc.) is specified. The two most common titles of master's degrees are the Master of Arts (MA/M.A./A.M) and Master of Science (MSc/M.S./S.M.) degrees; which normally consist of a mixture of research and taught material.[47][48]
You should have clarified futher. It’s a degree to be come a Master of your chosen subject, so the degree is a Master’s degree (possessive form: the degree of the Master). It is sometimes seen as Masters’ degree when referring to the course as a whole because it’s then a collective plural (referring to all the students who will become Masters: the degrees of the Masters). I often find that understanding is aided by contextual examples more than by just quoting lists of guidelines.

Students must usually declare their research goal or submit a research proposal upon entering graduate school; in the case of master's degrees, there will be some flexibility (that is, one is not held to one's research proposal, although major changes, for example from premodern to modern history, are discouraged). In the case of Ph.D.s, the research direction is usually known as it will typically follow the direction of the master's research.


Master's degrees. These are sometimes placed in a further hierarchy, starting with degrees such as the Master of Arts (from Latin Magister artium; M.A.) and Master of Science (from Latin Magister scientiæ; M.Sc.) degrees, then the Master of Philosophy degree (from Latin Magister philosophiæ; M.Phil.), and finally the Master of Letters degree (from Latin Magister litterarum; M.Litt.) (all formerly known in France as DEA or DESS before 2005, and nowadays Masters too). In the UK, master's degrees may be taught or by research: taught master's degrees include the Master of Science and Master of Arts degrees which last one year and are worth 180 CATS credits (equivalent to 90 ECTS European credits[8]), whereas the master's degrees by research include the Master of Research degree (M.Res.) which also lasts one year and is worth 180 CATS or 90 ECTS credits (the difference compared to the Master of Science and Master of Arts degrees being that the research is much more extensive) and the Master of Philosophy degree which lasts two years. In Scottish Universities, the Master of Philosophy degree tends to be by research or higher master's degree and the Master of Letters degree tends to be the taught or lower master's degree. In many fields such as clinical social work, or library science in North America, a master's is the terminal degree. Professional degrees such as the Master of Architecture degree (M.Arch.) can last to three and a half years to satisfy professional requirements to be an architect. Professional degrees such as the Master of Business Administration degree (M.B.A.) can last up to two years to satisfy the requirement to become a knowledgeable business leader.[9]
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