Doctoral students generally spend roughly their first two to three years taking coursework and begin research by their second year if not before. Many master's and all specialist students will perform research culminating in a paper, presentation, and defense of their research. This is called the master's thesis (or, for Educational Specialist students, the specialist paper). However, many US master's degree programs do not require a master's thesis, focusing instead primarily on coursework or on "practicals" or "workshops". Some students complete a final culminating project or "capstone" rather than a thesis. Such "real-world" experience may typically require a candidate work on a project alone or in a team as a consultant, or consultants, for an outside entity approved or selected by the academic institution and under faculty supervision.
The graduate certificate in public health online program at Oregon State University is designed for public health practitioners and others seeking professional development and continuing education within the field of public health. The program focuses on the five core areas of public health: epidemiology, biostatistics, health promotion and behavior, environmental and occupational health, and...

At most institutions, decisions regarding admission are not made by the institution itself but the department to which the student is applying. Some departments may require interviews before making a decision to accept an applicant.[7] Most universities adhere to the Council of Graduate Schools' Resolution Regarding Graduate Scholars, Fellows, Trainees, and Assistants, which gives applicants until April 15 to accept or reject offers that contain financial support.[12]


Many graduate programs require students to pass one or several examinations in order to demonstrate their competence as scholars.[6] In some departments, a comprehensive examination is often required in the first year of doctoral study, and is designed to test a student's background undergraduate-level knowledge. Examinations of this type are more common in the sciences and some social sciences but relatively unknown in most humanities disciplines.
Oregon State University's Applied Economics Graduate Program offers M.S., M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in Applied Economics. The curricula provide, at both master’s and doctoral levels: (i) a foundation of rigorous core courses in economic theory, econometrics, and other quantitative methods; and (ii) areas of concentration in resource and environmental economics, trade and development, and other...
Admission to a master's degree normally requires successful completion of study at bachelor's degree level either (for postgraduate degrees) as a stand-alone degree or (for integrated degrees) as part of an integrated scheme of study. In countries where the bachelor's degree with honours is the standard undergraduate degree, this is often the normal entry qualification.[59][72] In addition, students will normally have to write a personal statement and, in the arts and humanities, will often have to submit a portfolio of work.[73]
The Master of Business Administration, or MBA degree,  is a master’s degree in business administration (management) that actually originated in the U.S. as a scientific approach to management; it is both a terminal degree and a professional degree. Core topics in MBA programs commonly cover accounting, finance, marketing, human resources, operations.
MS Accounting MS in Financial Crime and Compliance Management MBA - Cyber Policy MBA - Cybersecurity MBA - Economic Crime and Fraud Management MBA - Data Analytics MS in Cybersecurity - Cyber Operations MS in Cybersecurity - Electronic Crime MS in Cybersecurity - Computer Forensics MBA - Finance and Accounting MBA - General MS in Cybersecurity MBA - Entrepreneurship MBA - Health Care Management MS in Cybersecurity - Malware Analysis MS in Cybersecurity - Cyber Intelligence MHA - Health Care Administration - Long Term Care MHA in Health Care Administration MHA - Health Care Administration - Acute Care MHA in Health Care Administration - Service Organization MS in Data Science - Cybersecurity MS in Data Science: Financial Crime MS in Data Science - Business Analytics MS in Data Science MS in Data Science: Social Science Analytics
Many graduate programs require students to pass one or several examinations in order to demonstrate their competence as scholars.[36] In some departments, a comprehensive examination is often required in the first year of doctoral study, and is designed to test a student's background undergraduate-level knowledge. Examinations of this type are more common in the sciences and some social sciences, and relatively unknown in most humanities disciplines.
Postgraduate degrees are more focused than undergraduate degrees, with classes centered around a specific field of study. Seeking a master's degree requires one to three years of additional study, while a doctoral degree requires four to six years. Some colleges offer both undergraduate and graduate degree paths, while other colleges only offer one or the other.

Professional or practice master's degrees (see also professional degree) are designed to prepare students for a particular professional career and are primarily taught, although they may include work placements and independent study projects. Some may require professional experience for entry. Examples include MBA, MDiv, LLM and MSW as well as some integrated master's degrees. The name of the degree normally includes the subject name.


Funding for postgraduate study in the UK is awarded competitively, and usually is disseminated by institution (in the form of a certain allocation of studentships for a given year) rather than directly to individuals. There are a number of scholarships for master's courses, but these are relatively rare and dependent on the course and class of undergraduate degree obtained (usually requiring at least a lower second). Most master's students are self-funded.
MA in Education and Human Development in Educational Leadership and Administration Master of Arts in Education and Human Development in Special Education for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners MA in Education and Human Development in Interdisciplinary Secondary Transition Services MSHS in Integrative Medicine - FELLOWSHIP MSHS in Integrative Medicine MSHS in Integrative Medicine - NUTRITION Political Management MA in Education and Human Development in Educational Technology Leadership MA in Education and Human Development in Organizational Leadership and Learning Strategic Public Relations Master of Business Administration in Healthcare MSHS in Regulatory Affairs MSHS in Health Care Quality MSHS in Correctional Health Administration Dual Degree: BSHS/MSHS in Clinical Research Administration MSHS in Biomedical Informatics MSHS in Translational Microbiology MSHS in Molecular Diagnostic Sciences MSHS in Laboratory Medicine MSHS in Immunohematology and Biotechnology MSHS in Clinical Operations and Healthcare Management MSHS in Clinical Microbiology
Master of Business Administration Master of Arts in Communication Master of Arts in Educational Leadership Online Master of Health Administration Master of Business Administration - Healthcare Master of Arts in Communication - Integrated Digital Strategy Concentration Master of Business Administration - Finance Master of Science in Nursing – Clinical Nurse Leader

The University of Scranton has grounded its education in Catholic and Jesuit principles based on intellectual growth and integrity, all of which shape the online master’s and certificate programs. You can choose one of six degree programs from a selective institution ranked among the top 10 master’s universities in the North by U.S. News & World Report.
In the UK, students will normally need to have a 2:1. Students may also have to provide evidence of their ability to successfully pursue a postgraduate degree to be accepted into a taught master's course, and possibly higher for a research master's.[74] Graduate schools in the US similarly require strong undergraduate performance, and may require students to take one or more standardised tests, such as the GRE, GMAT or LSAT.[75]

Research in the department stresses mathematical depth, the integration of theory and implementation, and a broad perspective on computing systems. Students are encouraged to tailor their programs of courses and research to fit their specific needs.  Research emphases are in algorithms; communication protocols, concurrent computation, and networks; graphics and human-computer interaction; novel computational substrates, including quantum mechanical computers and molecular computers; VLSI, with a specific emphasis on asynchronous and analog VLSI; high-confidence systems, including fault tolerance, program verification, and security; information theory; learning theory; computational complexity; computer vision; and large-scale scientific computing.  Caltech's new centers of Information Science and Technology (IST) facilitate multidisciplinary collaboration across all departments on campus.  Graduate projects frequently involve connections with other disciplines including Physics, Biology, Control and Dynamical Systems, and Social Sciences. Students join a research group from the very beginning of their sojourn at Caltech so it is desirable that applicants have a defined area of interest when applying.

In the Netherlands the titles ingenieur (ir.), meester (mr.) and doctorandus (drs.) may be rendered, if obtained in the Netherlands from a university, after the application of the Bologna process, as: MSc instead of ir., LLM instead of mr. and MA or MSc instead of drs.[84] This is because a single program that led to these degree was in effect before 2002, which comprised the same course load as the bachelor and master programs put together. Those who had already started the program could, upon completing it, bear the appropriate title (MSc, LLM or MA), but alternatively still use the old-style title (ir., mr. or drs.), corresponding to their field of study. Since these graduates do not have a separate bachelor's degree (which is in fact – in retrospect – incorporated into the program), the master's degree is their first academic degree. Bearers of foreign master's degree are able to use the titles ir., mr. and drs. only after obtaining a permission to bear such titles from the Dienst Uitvoering Onderwijs. Those who received their mr., ir. or drs. title after the application of the Bologna process have the option of signing as A. Jansen, MA or A. Jansen, MSc, depending on the field in which the degree was obtained, since the ir., mr. and drs. titles are similar to a master's degree, and the shortcut MA or MSc. may officially be used in order to render such title as an international title.[85][86][87][88]


There are 87 public universities in France, and also some private universities, and they are based upon the European education ladder including bachelors, Masters, and Ph.D.s. Students gain each degree though the successful completion of a predetermined number of years in education, gaining credits via the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS). There are over 300 doctoral programs that collaborate with 1200 research laboratories and centers. Each degree has a certain set of national diplomas that are all of equal value, irrespective of where they were issued. There are also other diplomas that are exclusive to France and are very hard to attain.
The Bologna declaration in 1999 started the Bologna Process, leading to the creation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). This established a three-cycle bachelor's—master's—doctorate classification of degrees, leading to the adoption of master's degrees across the continent, often replacing older long-cycle qualifications such as the Magister (arts), Diplom (sciences) and state registration (professional) awards in Germany.[45] As the process continued, descriptors were introduced for all three levels in 2004, and ECTS credit guidelines were developed. This led to questions as to the status of the integrated master's degrees and one-year master's degrees in the UK.[46] However, the Framework for Higher Education Qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and the Framework for Qualifications of Higher Education Institutes in Scotland have both been aligned with the overarching framework for the EHEA with these being accepted as master's-level qualifications.

The committee for the Master’s degree, thesis option, must consist of at least three graduate faculty members. The chairperson and at least one member must be a graduate faculty member in the Electrical and Computer Engineering department. The chairperson is usually the student’s academic advisor and should advise the student in the selection of the other committee members.
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After acquiring a Bachelor's or Licenciate Degree, students are qualified to continue their academic career through Master's Degree ("mestrado", in Portuguese, a.k.a. stricto sensu post-graduation) or Specialization Degree ("especialização", in Portuguese, a.k.a. lato sensu post-graduation) programs. At the Master's program there are 2–3 years of graduate-level studies. Usually focused on academic research, the Master's Degree requires, on any specific knowledge area, the development of a thesis to be presented and defended before a board of professors after the period of research. Conversely, the Specialization Degree, also comprehends a 1–2 years studies, but does not require a new thesis to be proposed and defended, being usually attended by professionals looking for complementary training on a specific area of their knowledge.
Nurses who choose an online ASN-to-MSN program often continue working while earning their degree. Many programs offer flexible schedules, including asynchronous courses with no set login times. Nursing students can choose a full- or part-time option, depending on the program. Some programs also offer accelerated options, in which nurses with an ASN complete their MSN within two years.
Industrial Engineering is the application of science, mathematics, and engineering methods to complex system integration and operation. Because the systems with which they work is so large and complex, industrial engineers (IEs) must develop expertise in a wide variety of disciplines, the ability to work well with people, and a broad, systems perspective.
Graduate students often declare their intended degree (master's or doctorate) in their applications. In some cases, master's programs allow successful students to continue toward the doctorate degree. Additionally, doctoral students who have advanced to candidacy but not filed a dissertation ("ABD", for "all but dissertation") often receive master's degrees and an additional master's called a Master of Philosophy (MPhil) or a Candidate of Philosophy (C.Phil.) degree. The master's component of a doctorate program often requires one or two years.
The option in control and dynamical systems (CDS) is open to students with an undergraduate degree in engineering, mathematics, or science. The qualifications of each applicant will be considered individually, and, after being enrolled, the student will arrange his or her program in consultation with a member of the faculty. In some cases the student may be required to make up undergraduate deficiencies in engineering science courses.  The CDS option emphasizes the interdisciplinary nature of modern theory of dynamical systems and control. The curriculum is designed to promote a broad knowledge of mathematical and experimental techniques in dynamical systems theory and control. In addition to taking courses in the CDS option, students must select a focus area.
This is an offer for educational opportunities that may lead to employment and not an offer for nor a guarantee of employment. Students should consult with a representative from the school they select to learn more about career opportunities in that field. Program outcomes vary according to each institution’s specific program curriculum. Specific School Disclosures.
Many graduate students see themselves as akin to junior faculty, but with significantly lower pay.[citation needed] Many graduate students feel that teaching takes time that would better be spent on research, and many point out that there is a vicious circle in the academic labor economy. Institutions that rely on cheap graduate student labor have no need to create expensive professorships, so graduate students who have taught extensively in graduate school can find it immensely difficult to get a teaching job when they have obtained their degree. Many institutions depend heavily on graduate student teaching: a 2003 report by agitators for a graduate student union at Yale,[16] for instance, claims that "70% of undergraduate teaching contact hours at Yale are performed by transient teachers: graduate teachers, adjunct instructors, and other teachers not on the tenure track." The state of Michigan leads in terms of progressive policy regarding graduate student unions with five universities recognizing graduate employee unions: Central Michigan University, Michigan State University, the University of Michigan, Wayne State University, and Western Michigan University.
Postgraduate studies in Israel require the completion of a bachelor's degree and is dependent upon this title's grades; see Education in Israel #Higher education. Degrees awarded are the M.A., M.Sc., M.B.A. and LLM; the Technion awards a non-thesis M.Eng. [95] There also exists "a direct track" doctorate degree, which lasts four to five years. Taking this route, students prepare a preliminary research paper during their first year, after which they must pass an exam before being allowed to proceed, at which point they are awarded a master's degree.
Gerontology refers to the study of aging, and also includes adult development. The existence of large numbers of individuals over the age of 65 is unprecedented in the history of humankind. In the next ten years, the number of older adults is expected to double in developed countries, and quadruple in the developing world. This growth will pose major challenges for societies in addressing the...
Master of Business Administration: Taxation Master of Business Administration: Risk Management & Insurance Master of Business Administration: Interdisciplinary Business Master of Science in Library and Information Science: Archival Studies Master of Science in Library and Information Science: Special Librarianship Master of Science in Library and Information Science: Public Librarianship Master of Science in Library and Information Science: Youth Services Master of Science in Library and Information Science Master of Science in Library and Information Science: Management Master of Science in Library and Information Science: Academic Librarianship Master of Science in Accounting Master of Public Health
During an ADN-to-MSN program, nursing students complete curriculum and clinical requirements. Most programs begin with undergraduate-level coursework, and some grant a BSN to nursing students as they complete the MSN prerequisites. Once students enter the MSN program, they choose a specialization and complete graduate-level coursework. MSN programs also include clinical hours to build the skills required for advanced practice roles.
Geography is the study of human use and interaction with the Earth and the identification of spatial and temporal variation in natural and human processes. Geography uses principles of mathematics, social science, and natural science to analyze and interpret change in the environment. Many geographic studies require a combination of field, laboratory and computational work. Geography plays an...
During an RN-to-MSN program, nursing students complete BSN-level coursework to qualify for the MSN program. After meeting the coursework requirements, nursing students choose an MSN specialization and take graduate-level classes in their field. MSN students must also meet clinical requirements, usually 200 clinical hours in their specialization, to build hands-on experience.
Agricultural Education offers course work that serves teachers and leaders in agriculture. The M.S, M.Ag. and M.A.I.S. degrees may be pursued with an emphasis in leadership, communication, pedagogy, extension and/or technical agriculture. Candidates work with an adviser to develop programs that meet their specific needs as indicated by their occupational objectives.
Are you interested in embarking upon a career in the federal, public, tribal, or community rehabilitation sectors? Emporia State University's Clinical Counseling with a Clinical Rehabilitation Counseling Concentration offers four options to study: generalist, deaf and hard of hearing persons, autism spectrum disorder, or autism spectrum disorder post-master's certificate. Offered on campus.

The master's degree dates back to the origin of European universities, with a Papal bull of 1233 decreeing that anyone admitted to the mastership in the University of Toulouse should be allowed to teach freely in any other university. The original meaning of the master's degree was thus that someone who had been admitted to the rank (degree) of master (i.e. teacher) in one university should be admitted to the same rank in other universities. This gradually became formalised as the licentia docendi (licence to teach). Originally, masters and doctors were not distinguished, but by the 15th century it had become customary in the English universities to refer to the teachers in the lower faculties (arts and grammar) as masters and those in the higher faculties as doctors.[2] Initially, the Bachelor of Arts (BA) was awarded for the study of the trivium and the Master of Arts (MA) for the study of the quadrivium.[3]
Some individuals with an IDT degree serve as instructional designers/trainers in business, industry, healthcare, military, and post-secondary institutions; charged with training, development, and eLearning programs within their organizations. Others are practicing P-12 educators who wish to improve the quality of curriculum, instruction, and student learning through integrating technology into the classroom. Courses for the programs can be completed in a fully online accelerated format, fully face-to-face, or a blend of the two environments.
Ocean, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences is an interdisciplinary graduate major that first introduces students to the elements of the Earth system and the processes of mass and energy flow among them through a set of core courses. Students then pursue focused graduate course work and research in the following concentration areas, directed by their program committee.
Babson College is the premier educational institution for developing entrepreneurs of all kinds. Our AACSB-accredited graduate business programs, immersive and action-based curricula, engaged global network, and tight-knit community promote entrepreneurship as a make-it-happen mindset that can be applied to all business situations. That’s why we’re ranked #1 for Entrepreneurship (MBA) by U.S. News & World Report and #1 for Percentage of Alumni Who Start a Business After College (MBA) by Financial Times.
Doctorates. These are often further divided into academic and professional doctorates. An academic doctorate can be awarded as a Doctor of Philosophy degree (from Latin Doctor philosophiæ; Ph.D. or D.Phil.) or as a Doctor of Science degree (from Latin Doctor scientiæ; D.Sc.). The Doctor of Science degree can also be awarded in specific fields, such as a Doctor of Science in Mathematics degree (from Latin Doctor scientiarum mathematic arum; D.Sc.Math.), a Doctor of Agricultural Science degree (from Latin Doctor scientiarum agrariarum; D.Sc.Agr.), a Doctor of Business Administration degree (D.B.A.), etc. In some parts of Europe, doctorates are divided into the Doctor of Philosophy degree or "junior doctorate," and the "higher doctorates" such as the Doctor of Science degree, which is generally awarded to highly distinguished professors. A doctorate is the terminal degree in most fields. In the United States, there is little distinction between a Doctor of Philosophy degree and a Doctor of Science degree. In the UK, Doctor of Philosophy degrees are often equivalent to 540 CATS credits or 270 ECTS European credits, but this is not always the case as the credit structure of doctoral degrees is not officially defined.
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