Admission to undertake a research degree in the UK typically requires a strong bachelor's degree or Scottish M.A. (at least lower second, but usually an upper second or first class). In some institutions, doctoral candidates are initially admitted to a Masters in Research Philosophy (M.Phil. or M.Res.), then later transfer to a Ph.D./D.Phil. if they can show satisfactory progress in their first 8–12 months of study.[33] Candidates for the degree of Doctor of Education (Ed.D) are typically required to hold a good bachelor's degree as well as an appropriate master's degree before being admitted.
Master of Science, Instructional Specialist - Elementary Content concentration. The Instruction Specialist program is intended for the teaching practitioner in settings from early childhood through adolescence and young adulthood. This concentration allows the practitioner to strengthen their teaching in core elementary subject areas. Offered online and at the Olathe school district.
Admission to a master's degree normally requires successful completion of study at bachelor's degree level either (for postgraduate degrees) as a stand-alone degree or (for integrated degrees) as part of an integrated scheme of study. In countries where the bachelor's degree with honours is the standard undergraduate degree, this is often the normal entry qualification.[59][72] In addition, students will normally have to write a personal statement and, in the arts and humanities, will often have to submit a portfolio of work.[73]

The Master of Fine Arts, or MFA degree, is a graduate degree that usually requires 2 to 3 years of postgraduate study after a Bachelor’s degree (Bachelor of Fine Arts). Unlike the Master of Arts, the M.F.A. centers around practice in a particular discipline and is recognized as a terminal degree in visual arts, design, dance, photography, theater, and creative writing.

In 2000 renewed pressure was put on Oxbridge MAs in the UK Parliament, with Labour MP Jackie Lawrence introducing an early day motion calling for them to be scrapped and telling the Times Higher Education it was a "discriminatory practice" and that it "devalues and undermines the efforts of students at other universities".[40][41] The following month the Quality Assurance Agency announced the results of a survey of 150 major employers showing nearly two thirds mistakenly thought the Cambridge MA was a postgraduate qualification and just over half made the same error regarding the Edinburgh MA, with QAA chief executive John Randall calling the Oxbridge MA "misleading and anachronistic".[42]
Be aware that the set of rules and constraints for your degree program are actually a combination of policies defined by the CS Department, the Graduate School, and sometimes other entities such as the Registrar's Office. This site presents these rules and constraints as you must satisfy them, without necessarily explaining who is the ultimate authority for any given one. It is possible that you will seek an exemption to some rule or requirement. This is when it becomes important to find out who "owns" that rule. In general, the Graduate School defines a framework for a degree program, and a Department fleshes this out. For example, the Graduate School requires that all PhD students take a Preliminary Exam and a Final Exam. The Department is free to define the mechanics of these exams, but not their existance, nor the scheduling process. So for example, it is a Graduate School rule that there must be a certain minimum amount of time between a Preliminary Exam and a Final Exam. So only the Graduate School would be able to grant an exemption (if they were so inclined).
^ C. E. Whiting (29 June 1937). "Durham University Centenary". Yorkshire Post. Retrieved 8 August 2016 – via British Newspaper Archive. The M.A. degree at Oxford and Cambridge had degenerated, and was granted to Bachelors of three years' standing on the payment of certain fees. At Durham the B.A. had to keep residence for three extra terms, and to pass what seems have been an honours examination in order to proceed to the Master's degree, and for a number of years classes were awarded in the M.A. examination.
An integrated approach to graduate study combining computation and neural systems is organized jointly by the Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, the Division of Engineering and Applied Science, and the Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences. This curriculum is designed to promote a broad knowledge of relevant and related aspects of experimental and theoretical molecular, cellular, neural, and systems biology; computational devices; information theory; emergent or collective systems; modeling; and complex systems; in conjunction with an appropriate depth of knowledge in the particular field of the thesis research.
In Argentina, the admission to a Postgraduate program at an Argentine University requires the full completion of any undergraduate course, called in Argentina "carrera de grado" (v.gr. Licenciado, Ingeniero or Lawyer degree). The qualifications of 'Licenciado', 'Ingeniero', or the equivalent qualification in Law degrees (a graduate from a "carrera de grado") are similar in content, length and skill-set to a joint first and second cycles in the qualification framework of the Bologna Process (that is, Bachelor and Master qualifications).
The term "graduate school" is used more widely by North American universities than by those in the UK. However, numerous universities in the UK have formally launched graduate schools, including the University of Birmingham, Durham University, Keele University, the University of Nottingham, Bournemouth University, Queen's University Belfast and the University of London, which includes graduate schools at King's College London, Royal Holloway and University College London. They often coordinate the supervision and training of candidates for doctorates.

The combined BS/MS is a special program for outstanding current Weldon School undergraduates who have established research relationships with faculty members. This program was created to provide further training to undergraduates who have been conducting research in the labs of our faculty and who strongly desire to continue their research toward an MS or PhD degree. The ultimate plan of study is intended to prepare students for PhD level graduate studies or research-oriented industry positions. The proposed program enables students to complete the BS and the MS in a total of five, rather than the typical six, years.

MA, Leadership: Organizational Leadership Specialization MBA, Sports Management Specialization MBA, Chief School Business Official Specialization MBA, Not-for-Profit Management Specialization MBA, Leadership and Change Management Specialization MBA, School Business Management Specialization MBA, Entrepreneurship Specialization The Concordia University Chicago Core MBA MBA, Digital Marketing Specialization MBA, Health Care Management Specialization MBA, Accounting Specialization MBA, Finance Specialization MA, Innovation and Entrepreneurship
Master's degrees are commonly titled using the form 'Master of ...', where either a faculty (typically Arts or Science) or a field (Engineering, Physics, Chemistry, Business Administration, etc.) is specified. The two most common titles of master's degrees are the Master of Arts (MA/M.A./A.M) and Master of Science (MSc/M.S./S.M.) degrees; which normally consist of a mixture of research and taught material.[47][48]

The Department of Physics offers courses and research experience leading to the master of arts, master of science, and doctor of philosophy degrees. Advanced-degree candidates may pursue thesis research in experimental, computational, or theoretical AMO (atomic, molecular, and optical) physics, nuclear and particle physics, or solid state physics. Special programs are available for students...


A large share of the funding offered to junior researchers is channeled through the école doctorale, mainly in the shape of three-years "Doctoral Fellowships" (contrats doctoraux). These fellowships are awarded after submitting a biographical information, undergraduate and graduate transcripts where applicable, letters of recommendation, and research proposal, then an oral examination by an Academical Committee.
Although graduate school programs are distinct from undergraduate degree programs, graduate instruction (in the US, Australia, and other countries) is often offered by some of the same senior academic staff and departments who teach undergraduate courses. Unlike in undergraduate programs, however, it is less common for graduate students to take coursework outside their specific field of study at graduate or graduate entry level. At the Ph.D. level, though, it is quite common to take courses from a wider range of study, for which some fixed portion of coursework, sometimes known as a residency, is typically required to be taken from outside the department and college of the degree-seeking candidate, to broaden the research abilities of the student. Some institutions[which?] designate separate graduate versus undergraduate staff and denote other divisions.[not verified in body]
In Slovenia and Croatia, during the pre-Bologna process education, all academic degrees were awarded after a minimum of four years of university studies and a successful defence of a written thesis and are considered equivalent to the master's degree.[citation needed] After the completion of that first cycle of the pre-Bologna higher education, the students obtained professional degrees with the titles of Professor (abbreviation "prof.") for educational studies, Engineer (abbreviation "ing.") for technical studies, or Licensed professional of their field of expertise (abbreviation "dipl." with a reference to the profession) for other studies. The title of Magister Scientiae (abbreviation "mr. sc.") was awarded to students who completed a postgraduate university programme (and therefore qualified for a doctorate programme), while the title of Scientiae Doctor (abbreviation "dr. sc.") was awarded to students who completed a postgraduate doctoral programme. Slovenia is a full member of the Bologna Process since 1999[90] and Croatia since 2001.[91]
When negotiations fail, graduate employee unions sometimes go on strike. While graduate student unions can use the same types of strikes that other unions do, they have also made use of teach-ins, work-ins, marches, rallies, and grade strikes. In a grade strike, graduate students refuse to grade exams and papers and, if the strike lasts until the end of the academic term, also refuse to turn in final grades. Another form of job action is known as "work-to-rule", in which graduate student instructors work exactly as many hours as they are paid for and no more.

In Canada, the Schools and Faculties of Graduate Studies are represented by the Canadian Association of Graduate Studies (CAGS) or Association canadienne pour les études supérieures (ACES). The Association brings together 58 Canadian universities with graduate programs, two national graduate student associations, and the three federal research-granting agencies and organizations having an interest in graduate studies.[3] Its mandate is to promote, advance, and foster excellence in graduate education and university research in Canada. In addition to an annual conference, the association prepares briefs on issues related to graduate studies including supervision, funding, and professional development.
Students are required to complete a 12 credit hour depth/breadth requirement in order to receive a Master’s degree in ECE. To complete this depth/breadth requirement, students must take at least 9 depth credits of ECE coursework from one of the five research divisions housed in the ECE department (i.e., Computer Engineering, Devices, Electromagnetics and Energy Systems, Electronics, Signals & Systems). At least three of these nine depth credits must be at the 6000 level. In addition, students must complete at least three breadth credits of coursework in the ECE department outside of their declared depth research division. Students can determine which ECE courses are housed in each research division by referring to the research division flow charts at the end of this manual. ECE courses used to complete this depth/breadth requirement will be counted toward the minimum 18 credits of ECE coursework required for the Master’s thesis degree.
Graduate school, often referred to as grad school, is a college or university that offers advanced academic programs resulting in a master’s degree, doctorate degree or certificate. Most require students to already have completed a bachelor’s program and earned a minimum GPA. Many universities offer graduate programs, though the “graduate school” within the institution. The coursework in a grad school will be more advanced and focused as the goal of a graduate student is to concentrate their studies in a specific subject area and develop advanced knowledge and skills.

Graduate work in the School of Language, Culture, and Society may serve as a field of study for the Master of Arts in Interdisciplinary Studies degree or as a minor in other advanced degree programs. The program offers an interdisciplinary exploration of the critical areas of race, class, ethnicity, and gender in American life, as well as focused study of the four major ethnic minority groups...


While the undergrad years are marked by generalist coursework, graduate school typically entails more highly-focused studies and research in a chosen discipline. To this end, many grad school programs encourage students to narrow down their interests through a concentration. This focal area is often used to anchor independent research, internship experience, supervised practice and/or teaching. Learn more about the basics of grad school and view a comprehensive list of Grad School Majors.
Master's degrees. These are sometimes placed in a further hierarchy, starting with degrees such as the Master of Arts (from Latin Magister artium; M.A.) and Master of Science (from Latin Magister scientiæ; M.Sc.) degrees, then the Master of Philosophy degree (from Latin Magister philosophiæ; M.Phil.), and finally the Master of Letters degree (from Latin Magister litterarum; M.Litt.) (all formerly known in France as DEA or DESS before 2005, and nowadays Masters too). In the UK, master's degrees may be taught or by research: taught master's degrees include the Master of Science and Master of Arts degrees which last one year and are worth 180 CATS credits (equivalent to 90 ECTS European credits[8]), whereas the master's degrees by research include the Master of Research degree (M.Res.) which also lasts one year and is worth 180 CATS or 90 ECTS credits (the difference compared to the Master of Science and Master of Arts degrees being that the research is much more extensive) and the Master of Philosophy degree which lasts two years. In Scottish Universities, the Master of Philosophy degree tends to be by research or higher master's degree and the Master of Letters degree tends to be the taught or lower master's degree. In many fields such as clinical social work, or library science in North America, a master's is the terminal degree. Professional degrees such as the Master of Architecture degree (M.Arch.) can last to three and a half years to satisfy professional requirements to be an architect. Professional degrees such as the Master of Business Administration degree (M.B.A.) can last up to two years to satisfy the requirement to become a knowledgeable business leader.[9]
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