Ph.D. candidates undertaking research must typically complete a thesis, or dissertation, consisting of original research representing a significant contribution to their field, and ranging from two-hundred to five-hundred pages. Most Ph.D. candidates will be required to sit comprehensive examinations—examinations testing general knowledge in their field of specialization—in their second or third year as a prerequisite to continuing their studies, and must defend their thesis as a final requirement. Some faculties require candidates to earn sufficient credits in a third or fourth foreign language; for example, most candidates in modern Japanese topics must demonstrate ability in English, Japanese, and Mandarin, while candidates in pre-modern Japanese topics must demonstrate ability in English, Japanese, Classical Chinese, and Classical Japanese language.
The traditional and most common way of obtaining a doctorate in Germany is by doing so individually under supervision of a single professor (Doktorvater or Doktormutter) without any formal curriculum. During their studies, doctoral students are enrolled at university while often being employed simultaneously either at the university itself, at a research institute or at a company as a researcher.[5] Working in research during doctoral studies is, however, not a formal requirement.
The traditional and most common way of obtaining a doctorate in Germany is by doing so individually under supervision of a single professor (Doktorvater or Doktormutter) without any formal curriculum. During their studies, doctoral students are enrolled at university while often being employed simultaneously either at the university itself, at a research institute or at a company as a researcher.[5] Working in research during doctoral studies is, however, not a formal requirement.
The 21-credit Graduate Certificate in Business Analytics is designed to provide advanced coursework and experiential learning opportunities to students interested in careers that involve the application of statistical modeling, data warehousing, data mining, programming, forecasting and operations research techniques to the analysis of problems of business organization and performance.

Though many students pursue graduate studies in the same field in which they received their bachelor's degree, undergraduate and graduate degrees don't have to match. For instance, if you earned a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) in Psychology, you could pursue a Master of Arts (M.A.) in English or even a Master of Business Administration (M.B.A.). Similarly, if you earned a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) in Engineering, you could choose to pursue a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Theology. Students have the opportunity to either advance in the same field or branch out to another field, depending on their career goals.


Dual Master of Public Health/Master of Science in Management and Organizational Behavior Master of Science in Management and Organizational Behavior Accelerated MSMOB Master of Science in Accountancy Accelerated Masters in Business Administration Dual Master of Business Administration/Master of Public Health Dual Master of Business Administration/Master of Science in Management and Organizational Behavior Master of Business Administration Master of Public Health - Health Education & Promotion Master of Science in Nutrition and Wellness Master of Public Health - Health Management & Policy Master of Public Health Master of Science in Nursing Master of Science in Nursing - Nurse Educator Dual MBA-MSN Master of Science in Nursing - Nurse Executive Leader Master of Public Health - Epidemiology Focus
The online learning format helps working nurses complete a degree on their schedule. Nursing students choose between part- or full-time enrollment to fit their schedule, and many programs do not require set login times to complete coursework. Online nursing students can often complete clinical requirements at their current workplace. Accelerated programs let nurses with a BSN earn their MSN within 12 months.
Geology is the study of the materials, processes, and history of the solid Earth and its fluid envelopes. Geology is an integrative field, drawing on mathematics, chemistry, physics and biology to understand the interactions of the lithosphere, biosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere. Studies in geology commonly combine observations and measurements from field, laboratory, and computational...
During an RN-to-MSN program, nursing students complete BSN-level coursework to qualify for the MSN program. After meeting the coursework requirements, nursing students choose an MSN specialization and take graduate-level classes in their field. MSN students must also meet clinical requirements, usually 200 clinical hours in their specialization, to build hands-on experience.
At the start of the twentieth century there were therefore four different sorts of master's degree in the UK: the Scottish MA, granted as a first degree; the Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin), granted to all BA graduates a certain period after their first degree without further study; master's degrees that could be gained either by further study or by gaining an honours degree (which, at the time in the UK involved further study beyond the ordinary degree, as it still does in Scotland and some Commonwealth countries); and master's degrees that could only be obtained by further study (including all London master's degrees). In 1903, the London Daily News criticised the practice of Oxford and Cambridge, calling their MAs "the most stupendous of academic frauds" and "bogus degrees".[30] Ensuing correspondence pointed out that "A Scotch M.A., at the most, is only the equivalent of an English B.A." and called for common standards for degrees, while defenders of the ancient universities said that "the Cambridge M.A. does not pretend to be a reward of learning" and that "it is rather absurd to describe one of their degrees as a bogus one because other modern Universities grant the same degree for different reasons".[31][32]
Graduate students may take out student loans, but instead they often work as teaching or research assistants. Students often agree, as a condition of acceptance to a programme, not to devote more than twelve hours per week to work or outside interests. Various universities in Canada have different policies in terms of how much funding is available. This funding may also be different within a university in each of the disciplines. Many universities offer Evening MBA programs where students are able to work full-time while obtaining an MBA through evening classes, which allows them to pay their way through school.[4]

Agricultural Education offers course work that serves teachers and leaders in agriculture. The M.S, M.Ag. and M.A.I.S. degrees may be pursued with an emphasis in leadership, communication, pedagogy, extension and/or technical agriculture. Candidates work with an adviser to develop programs that meet their specific needs as indicated by their occupational objectives.
"This program is designed to give students a thorough training in fundamental computational and applied mathematics and to develop their research ability in a specific application field.  The fields of application include a wide range of areas such as fluid mechanics, materials science, and mathematical biology, and engineering applications such as image processing. Entering students should have a background in mathematics, physics, or engineering.
In addition, many Brazilian universities offer a MBA program. However, those are not the equivalent to a United States MBA degree, as it does not formally certify the student with a Master's degree (stricto sensu) but with a Specialization Degree (lato sensu) instead. A regular post-graduation course has to comply with a minimum of 360 class-hours, while a M.B.A. degree has to comply with a minimum of 400 class-hours. Master's degree (stricto sensu) does not requires minimum class-hours, but it's practically impossible to finish it before 1.5 year due the workload and research required; an average time for the degree is 2.5 years[citation needed]. Specialization (lato sensu) and M.B.A. degrees can be also offered as distance education courses, while the master's degree (stricto-sensu) requires physical attendance. In Brazil, the degree often serves as additional qualification for those seeking to differentiate themselves in the job market, or for those who want to pursue a Ph.D. It corresponds to the European (Bologna Process) 2nd Cycle or the North American master's.
Some individuals with an IDT degree serve as instructional designers/trainers in business, industry, healthcare, military, and post-secondary institutions; charged with training, development, and eLearning programs within their organizations. Others are practicing P-12 educators who wish to improve the quality of curriculum, instruction, and student learning through integrating technology into the classroom. Courses for the programs can be completed in a fully online accelerated format, fully face-to-face, or a blend of the two environments.
Below is a list of all graduate degree and certificate programs offered at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. A graduate degree or certificate is awarded upon completion of a specified program of study in a major field. Degree titles are posted on transcripts and diplomas, while the titles of majors and certificates are only posted on transcripts. The Graduate School Catalog provides further details about each degree and certificate program, and you can download a PDF version of the list of graduate degrees and certificate programs.
Within the sciences and some social sciences, previous research experience may be important.[6][9] By contrast, within most humanities disciplines, an example of academic writing normally suffices. Many universities require a personal statement (sometimes called Statement of purpose or Letter of Intent), which may include indications of the intended area(s) of research;[7] how detailed this statement is or whether it is possible to change one's focus of research depends strongly on the discipline and department to which the student is applying.
It is imperative that copies of the student’s thesis be given to the supervisory committee at least two weeks in advance of the final examination. Graduation may be delayed for those who do not adhere to this rule. The Student Services Office should be informed of the examination one week prior to the thesis defense date in order to process the Final Exam Report form and send out notices. Students are also required to complete an Exit Survey during the semester they plan to graduate. Students can find more information about the Exit Survey in the Student Services Office.
Many graduate programs require students to pass one or several examinations in order to demonstrate their competence as scholars.[6] In some departments, a comprehensive examination is often required in the first year of doctoral study, and is designed to test a student's background undergraduate-level knowledge. Examinations of this type are more common in the sciences and some social sciences but relatively unknown in most humanities disciplines.

MS in Special Education MS in Organization Development and Leadership MS in Health Administration - Organizational Development and Leadership MS in Business Intelligence and Analytics MS in Business Intelligence and Analytics – Cyber Analytics MS in Criminal Justice MS in Criminal Justice - Homeland Security Specialization MS in Criminal Justice - Intelligence and Crime Analysis Specialization MS in Criminal Justice - Behavior Analysis Specialization MS in Criminal Justice - Federal Law Enforcement Specialization MS in Business Intelligence and Analytics – General Track MS in Business Intelligence and Analytics – Data Analytics MS in Health Administration - General Concentration MS in Business Intelligence and Analytics – Data Science MS in Health Administration - Informatics Specialization MS in Secondary Education (with OATCERT) MS in Strategic Human Resource Management
Are you interested in embarking upon a career in the federal, public, tribal, or community rehabilitation sectors? Emporia State University's Clinical Counseling with a Clinical Rehabilitation Counseling Concentration offers four options to study: generalist, deaf and hard of hearing persons, autism spectrum disorder, or autism spectrum disorder post-master's certificate. Offered on campus.
Rural communities—both in the U.S. and globally—face an extraordinarily complex set of challenges due to sparse settlements and geographic isolation, exacerbated by globalization and technological change in an interdependent urban-rural system. Addressing these challenges requires both the theoretical insights of multiple disciplines and the practical wisdom that derives from engagement in...

If you are dedicated to creating better ways to feed or fuel the world now and in the future, studying crop science can ensure that you have a hand in the development of new, sustainable methods of agriculture for Oregon and the world. You'll gain practical experience in quality breeding methods, seed technology, entomology, weed management techniques and more.
The Master of Science in Forensic Science program at Emporia State University was developed with the input of crime lab directors across the Midwest to ensure that it was preparing students for the workforce. The opportunity to learn from practitioners and professors and the one-on-one guidance ensure a quality education with opportunities not found elsewhere.
In some fields, research positions are more coveted than teaching positions because student researchers are typically paid to work on the dissertation they are required to complete anyway, while teaching is generally considered a distraction from one's work. Research positions are more typical of science disciplines; they are relatively uncommon in humanities disciplines, and where they exist, they rarely allow the student to work on their own research.
After acquiring a Bachelor's or Licenciate Degree, students are qualified to continue their academic career through Master's Degree ("mestrado", in Portuguese, a.k.a. stricto sensu post-graduation) or Specialization Degree ("especialização", in Portuguese, a.k.a. lato sensu post-graduation) programs. At the Master's program there are 2–3 years of graduate-level studies. Usually focused on academic research, the Master's Degree requires, on any specific knowledge area, the development of a thesis to be presented and defended before a board of professors after the period of research. Conversely, the Specialization Degree, also comprehends a 1–2 years studies, but does not require a new thesis to be proposed and defended, being usually attended by professionals looking for complementary training on a specific area of their knowledge.

In some countries such as Finland and Sweden, there is the degree of Licentiate, which is more advanced than a master's degree but less so than a Doctorate. Credits required are about half of those required for a doctoral degree.[10] Coursework requirements are the same as for a doctorate, but the extent of original research required is not as high as for doctorate.[11][12] Medical doctors for example are typically licentiates instead of doctors.
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