At most institutions, decisions regarding admission are not made by the institution itself but the department to which the student is applying. Some departments may require interviews before making a decision to accept an applicant.[7] Most universities adhere to the Council of Graduate Schools' Resolution Regarding Graduate Scholars, Fellows, Trainees, and Assistants, which gives applicants until April 15 to accept or reject offers that contain financial support.[12]
Modern astronomy—certainly as practiced at Caltech—is essentially astrophysics. With the goal of understanding the physical processes that govern the universe, its constituents, and their evolution, astronomy uses the apparatus and methodology of physics to gather and interpret data. In what follows, we use the terms astronomy and astrophysics interchangeably.  The primary aim of the graduate astrophysics program at Caltech is to prepare students for creative and productive careers in astrophysical research. The astrophysics program emphasizes independent research by graduate students, who are free to pursue study in virtually any area of astrophysics. The opportunity exists to take advantage of the many observational facilities owned and operated by Caltech.
Master of Science, Instructional Specialist - Elementary Content concentration. The Instruction Specialist program is intended for the teaching practitioner in settings from early childhood through adolescence and young adulthood. This concentration allows the practitioner to strengthen their teaching in core elementary subject areas. Offered online and at the Olathe school district.
The graduate certificate in public health online program at Oregon State University is designed for public health practitioners and others seeking professional development and continuing education within the field of public health. The program focuses on the five core areas of public health: epidemiology, biostatistics, health promotion and behavior, environmental and occupational health, and...
This 18-credit graduate credential will help prepare you to link scientists, decision-makers, and stakeholders when managing issues around wildlife management, conservation biology, and habitat management and restoration.  Through quality courses, you'll acquire and practice skills in biology, economy, law and social science as you deal with issues across a wide range of perspectives and...
A Water Resources Graduate Minor for master of science, master of arts, and doctor of philosophy degree programs is offered with specialization in hydrology, water quality, or water resources planning and management. The first two options are technically oriented, while the third gives added socioeconomic emphasis. Seminars, readings and conferences are offered by the Water Resources Graduate...
The Master of Arts, or MA degree, is a type of graduate degree which includes all arts and humanities disciplines as well as some social sciences. The M.A. degree is typically awarded in English, history, communication studies, international relations, international business administration, humanities, philosophy, and social sciences. Generally, an MA degree takes 2 years of full-time study for a non-thesis program, and longer for a thesis option; the Master of Arts (M.A.) may either be entirely course-based, entirely research-based or a combination. Admission to M.A. programs is usually contingent on the applicant having previously obtained their Bachelor’s degree which is often a Bachelor of Arts.
While most graduate programs will have a similar list of general admission requirements, the importance placed on each type of requirement can vary drastically between graduate schools, departments within schools, and even programs within departments. The best way to determine how a graduate program will weigh admission materials is to ask the person in charge of graduate admissions at the particular program being applied to. Admission to graduate school requires a bachelor's degree. High grades in one's field of study are important—grades outside the field less so. The Graduate Record Examination standardized test is required by almost all graduate schools, while other additional standardised tests (such as the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) and Graduate Record Examination (GRE) Subject Tests) scores may be required by some institutions or programs.[6][7] In addition, good letters of recommendation from undergraduate instructors are often essential,[8] as strong recommendation letters from mentors or supervisors of undergraduate research experience provide evidence that the applicant can perform research and can handle the rigors of a graduate school education.
There are 87 public universities in France, and also some private universities, and they are based upon the European education ladder including bachelors, Masters, and Ph.D.s. Students gain each degree though the successful completion of a predetermined number of years in education, gaining credits via the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS). There are over 300 doctoral programs that collaborate with 1200 research laboratories and centers. Each degree has a certain set of national diplomas that are all of equal value, irrespective of where they were issued. There are also other diplomas that are exclusive to France and are very hard to attain.
The master’s program in the Department of Biological Sciences is designed to qualify persons for continued graduate work at the doctoral level; for teaching biology in high schools, community colleges, and liberal arts colleges; and for employment in various fields of biology, including certain fields of applied biology. This program is available on campus and offers concentrations in Botany, Ecology and Biodiversity, General Biology, Microbial and Cellular Biology, and Zoology.

Ph.D. entrance requirements in the higher ranked schools typically require a student to have postgraduate research honours or a master's degree by research, or a master's with a significant research component. Entry requirements depend on the subject studied and the individual university. The minimum duration of a Ph.D. programme is two years, but completing within this time span is unusual, with Ph.D.s usually taking an average of three to four years to be completed.


Doctorates. These are often further divided into academic and professional doctorates. An academic doctorate can be awarded as a Doctor of Philosophy degree (from Latin Doctor philosophiæ; Ph.D. or D.Phil.) or as a Doctor of Science degree (from Latin Doctor scientiæ; D.Sc.). The Doctor of Science degree can also be awarded in specific fields, such as a Doctor of Science in Mathematics degree (from Latin Doctor scientiarum mathematic arum; D.Sc.Math.), a Doctor of Agricultural Science degree (from Latin Doctor scientiarum agrariarum; D.Sc.Agr.), a Doctor of Business Administration degree (D.B.A.), etc. In some parts of Europe, doctorates are divided into the Doctor of Philosophy degree or "junior doctorate," and the "higher doctorates" such as the Doctor of Science degree, which is generally awarded to highly distinguished professors. A doctorate is the terminal degree in most fields. In the United States, there is little distinction between a Doctor of Philosophy degree and a Doctor of Science degree. In the UK, Doctor of Philosophy degrees are often equivalent to 540 CATS credits or 270 ECTS European credits, but this is not always the case as the credit structure of doctoral degrees is not officially defined.
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