Many graduate programs require students to pass one or several examinations in order to demonstrate their competence as scholars.[36] In some departments, a comprehensive examination is often required in the first year of doctoral study, and is designed to test a student's background undergraduate-level knowledge. Examinations of this type are more common in the sciences and some social sciences, and relatively unknown in most humanities disciplines.
The competition for public universities is very large, as they are the most prestigious and respected universities in Brazil. Public universities do not charge fees for undergraduate level/course. Funding, similar to wages, is available but is usually granted by public agencies linked to the university in question (i.e. FAPESP, CAPES, CNPq, etc.), given to the students previously ranked based on internal criteria.

Counseling is certainly not a "one-size-fits-all" option. If you are interested in entering this field, it is important to think about the kind of counseling that you want to perform. There are several different types of counseling degrees available. These degrees can vary in terms of academic requirements and specialty areas, so it is important to consider the differences as well as your career goals before deciding which degree is right for you.
Understanding the brain remains one of the great intellectual challenges for science, and it requires the integration of approaches from many disciplines. Caltech Neuroscience research spans a wide range: from the molecular function of receptors; through signaling organelles like the synapse; the structure and function of single neurons; the assembly and function of circuits of nerve cells; and the collective function of brain systems in controlling behavior, perception, memory, cognition, and emotion. Several laboratories are applying basic science findings to animal models of brain disorders, and these translational approaches are opening up novel therapeutic avenues. Finally, Caltech's traditional strength in engineering stimulates the development of new tools for brain science: from optical techniques to new twists of genetic engineering, to novel multi-electrode devices, to computational models and theories.
While a significant portion of postgraduate students finance their tuition and living costs with teaching or research work at private and state-run institutions, international institutions, such as the Fulbright Program and the Organization of American States (OAS), have been known to grant full scholarships for tuition with apportions for housing.[16]

In the UK, students will normally need to have a 2:1. Students may also have to provide evidence of their ability to successfully pursue a postgraduate degree to be accepted into a taught master's course, and possibly higher for a research master's.[74] Graduate schools in the US similarly require strong undergraduate performance, and may require students to take one or more standardised tests, such as the GRE, GMAT or LSAT.[75]
The Master of Arts, or MA degree, is a type of graduate degree which includes all arts and humanities disciplines as well as some social sciences. The M.A. degree is typically awarded in English, history, communication studies, international relations, international business administration, humanities, philosophy, and social sciences. Generally, an MA degree takes 2 years of full-time study for a non-thesis program, and longer for a thesis option; the Master of Arts (M.A.) may either be entirely course-based, entirely research-based or a combination. Admission to M.A. programs is usually contingent on the applicant having previously obtained their Bachelor’s degree which is often a Bachelor of Arts.
Master of Arts in History Master of Arts in International Relations Online Master of Arts in Military History Master of Business Administration - Project Management Master of Business Administration - Energy Management Master of Business Administration - Supply Chain Management and Logistics Master of Business Administration - Finance Master of Business Administration - General Master of Business Administration - Organizational Leadership Master of Public Administration – Public Works and Sustainability Concentration Master of Public Administration – Fiscal Management Concentration Master of Public Administration – Organizational Leadership Master of Public Administration – Leadership and Crisis Management Master of Public Administration – Criminal Justice and Public Safety Concentration Master of Civil Engineering Master of Science in Nursing - Nursing Administration Master of Public Administration - General Master of Science in Nursing - Nursing Educator Master of Science in Leadership Master of Civil Engineering - Construction Management Master of Civil Engineering - Structural Engineering Master of Civil Engineering - Geotechnical Engineering Master of Civil Engineering - Environmental/Water Resources Engineering Master of Public Administration – Municipal Governance Master of Public Administration – Nonprofit Management Concentration
^ The spelling of master's degree and master's without an apostrophe is considered a mistake by many (see non-standard apostrophe use), but it is becoming more common. It is considered incorrect by most if not all US and most UK and Australian universities, style guides, and dictionaries, for example: OED, Collins, Cambridge Dictionaries Online, American Heritage (master's), American Heritage (master's degree), Merriam-Webster, and the Macquarie Dictionary (not free online) as shown in the following Monash University quotation. Monash University's style guide directly admits that the incorrectly missing apostrophe used to be more widespread in publications of this and therefore presumably other Australian universities: "Note that both 'bachelor's degree’ and 'master's degree', when used in a generic sense, require an apostrophe. While some dislike this convention, it is prescribed by the Macquarie Dictionary (the Australian standard) and the Oxford English Dictionary (the UK standard), and aligns with our key institutional partner Warwick University. Currently you will find the terms used both with and without an apostrophe throughout our online and print publications – gradually, we need to move toward correct usage."
Doctoral students generally spend roughly their first two to three years taking coursework and begin research by their second year if not before. Many master's and all specialist students will perform research culminating in a paper, presentation, and defense of their research. This is called the master's thesis (or, for Educational Specialist students, the specialist paper). However, many US master's degree programs do not require a master's thesis, focusing instead primarily on coursework or on "practicals" or "workshops". Some students complete a final culminating project or "capstone" rather than a thesis. Such "real-world" experience may typically require a candidate work on a project alone or in a team as a consultant, or consultants, for an outside entity approved or selected by the academic institution and under faculty supervision.

The committee for the Master’s degree, thesis option, must consist of at least three graduate faculty members. The chairperson and at least one member must be a graduate faculty member in the Electrical and Computer Engineering department. The chairperson is usually the student’s academic advisor and should advise the student in the selection of the other committee members.
The competition for public universities is very large, as they are the most prestigious and respected universities in Brazil. Public universities do not charge fees for undergraduate level/course. Funding, similar to wages, is available but is usually granted by public agencies linked to the university in question (i.e. FAPESP, CAPES, CNPq, etc.), given to the students previously ranked based on internal criteria.
Completion times for MSN degrees can be as short as 12 months or as long as several years, depending on each nurse's prior degrees and enrollment schedule. What can you do with a master's degree in nursing? Nurses with MSNs work in advanced practice roles, taking on increased responsibility. The degree prepares nurses for several certifications and licenses, including board certification for nurse practitioners.
Agricultural Education offers course work that serves teachers and leaders in agriculture. The M.S. and M.A.I.S. degrees may be pursued with an emphasis in leadership, communication, pedagogy, extension and/or technical agriculture. Candidates work with an adviser to develop programs that meet their specific needs as indicated by their occupational objectives.
In addition to social services, those with a graduate degree in psychology are also qualified to work in research or educational settings. College and universities employ PhD-level (and occasionally masters level) graduates to fill faculty positions. Professors are generally expected to teach undergraduate- and graduate-level students as well as conduct research.
These online colleges and universities offer the best online master's programs based on alumni salaries and tuition rates. is ranked #1, and has the lowest tuition rate, at , and the highest reported alumni salary, at . Georgia Tech offers online master's programs including a Master of Science in Cybersecurity and a Master of Science in Computer Science with multiple concentrations options.
Research in the department stresses mathematical depth, the integration of theory and implementation, and a broad perspective on computing systems. Students are encouraged to tailor their programs of courses and research to fit their specific needs.  Research emphases are in algorithms; communication protocols, concurrent computation, and networks; graphics and human-computer interaction; novel computational substrates, including quantum mechanical computers and molecular computers; VLSI, with a specific emphasis on asynchronous and analog VLSI; high-confidence systems, including fault tolerance, program verification, and security; information theory; learning theory; computational complexity; computer vision; and large-scale scientific computing.  Caltech's new centers of Information Science and Technology (IST) facilitate multidisciplinary collaboration across all departments on campus.  Graduate projects frequently involve connections with other disciplines including Physics, Biology, Control and Dynamical Systems, and Social Sciences. Students join a research group from the very beginning of their sojourn at Caltech so it is desirable that applicants have a defined area of interest when applying.
The M.S. in Informatics is a 36-credit hour STEM-focused graduate degree program focusing on transforming raw data into decision-making information. This program is administered by the Department of Interdisciplinary Studies, as the information taught is interdisciplinary by nature, and can be used across industries. Courses are taught by faculty from the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and the School of Library and Information Management.
The supervisory committee is the group of faculty members that supervises and approves the student’s graduate program. The committee’s function is to guide the student through his/her thesis research and to administer the oral final examination. The supervisory committee should be selected as soon as possible but no later than the end of the second semester. After the committee has been determined, the student should obtain a Supervisory Committee Form from the ECE Student Services Office (230 Larsen) and have the professors sign the form indicating their willingness to serve on the committee. The Graduate School may deny degrees to any persons who have failed to comply with this regulation at the proper time.
Although graduate school programs are distinct from undergraduate degree programs, graduate instruction (in the US, Australia, and other countries) is often offered by some of the same senior academic staff and departments who teach undergraduate courses. Unlike in undergraduate programs, however, it is less common for graduate students to take coursework outside their specific field of study at graduate or graduate entry level. At the Ph.D. level, though, it is quite common to take courses from a wider range of study, for which some fixed portion of coursework, sometimes known as a residency, is typically required to be taken from outside the department and college of the degree-seeking candidate, to broaden the research abilities of the student. Some institutions[which?] designate separate graduate versus undergraduate staff and denote other divisions.[not verified in body]
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