Oregon State University offers both Master and PhD Public Policy degrees for students interested in the study and practice of policy about issues critical to Oregonians and the world, drawing on the traditional strengths and emerging signature areas of OSU. While there is a science of policy including theoretical and methodological approaches that we expect students to master, the discipline...


In Brazil, a Bachelor's, Licenciate or Technologist degree is required in order to enter a graduate program, called pós-graduação. Generally, in order to be accepted, the candidate must have above average grades and it is highly recommended to be initiated on scientific research through government programs on undergraduate areas, as a complement to usual coursework.

Lato sensu graduate degrees: degrees that represent a specialization in a certain area and take from 1 to 2 years to complete. It can sometimes be used to describe a specialization level between a master's degree and an MBA. In that sense, the main difference is that the Lato Sensu courses tend to go deeper into the scientific aspects of the study field, while MBA programs tend to be more focused on the practical and professional aspects, being used more frequently to Business, Management and Administration areas. However, since there are no norms to regulate this, both names are used indiscriminately most of the time.


Nurses with an associate of science in nursing and an RN license qualify for ASN-to-MSN programs. Most programs that offer an RN-to-MSN program admit nurses with any type of associate degree in nursing, including the ASN. The typical admission requirements for an ASN-to-MSN program include a current, unencumbered RN license, an associate degree in nursing, and a minimum 3.0 GPA. Some programs also require test scores, letters of recommendation, a statement of purpose, or a resume.
Nursing students often continue working while earning their RN-to-MSN online. Many programs offer flexible scheduling options designed for working nurses. Students can often choose between full-time, part-time, or accelerated enrollment options. The best online RN-to-MSN programs offer a variety of specialization and enrollment options to meet the needs of nursing students and train nurses for advanced practice roles.

Additionally, doctoral students who have advanced to candidacy but not filed a dissertation ("ABD," for "all but dissertation") often receive master's degrees and an additional master's called a Master of Philosophy, or M.Phil., or C.Phil. "Candidate in Philosophy" degree. The master's component of a doctorate program often requires one or two years, and some students, because doctoral programs are sometimes better-funded, apply for doctoral programs while only intending to earn a master's degree. This is generally not acceptable and, if a student's advisor learns of the student's plans, can result in early termination.


This 18-credit graduate credential will help prepare you to link scientists, decision-makers, and stakeholders when managing recreational and commercial fisheries and fish habitat and contribute towards the general conservation of aquatic resources.  Through quality courses, you can practice skills in biology, economy, law and social science as you deal with issues across a wide range of...

EE at Caltech emphasizes both the fundamentals of electronics and systems, as well as acknowledging the multi-disciplinary nature of the field. Closely allied with Computation and Neural Systems, Applied Physics, Bioengineering, Computer Science, and Control and Dynamical System, it offers students the opportunity for study and research, both theoretical and experimental, in a wide variety of subjects, including wireless systems, quantum electronics, modern optics, lasers and guided waves, solid-state materials and devices, bio-optics and bio-electronics, power and energy systems, control theory, learning systems, computational finance, signal processing, data compression, communications, parallel and distributed computing, fault-tolerant computing, and computational vision.  Substantial experimental laboratory facilities, housed mainly in the Moore Laboratory of Engineering, are associated with each of these research fields.
Often enough, terms like Master of Arts and Master of Sciences are abbreviated, and the rules on how to do it vary from one university and style guide to another. The academic title Master of Arts can be abbreviated as MA or M.A., and if the university in question is keen on Latin phrases, it may be abbreviated as AM or A.M., from the Latin Artium Magister.
The form "Master in ..." is also sometimes used, particularly where a faculty title is used for an integrated master's in addition to its use in a traditional postgraduate master's, e.g. Master in Science (MSci) and Master in Arts (MArts). This form is also sometimes used with other integrated master's degrees,[50] and occasionally for postgraduate master's degrees (e.g. Master's in Accounting).[51] Some universities use Latin degree names; because of the flexibility of syntax in Latin, the Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees may be known in these institutions as Magister artium and Magister scientiæ or reversed from the English order to Artium magister and Scientiæ magister. Examples of the reversed usage include Harvard University, the University of Chicago and MIT, leading to the abbreviations A.M. and S.M. for these degrees. The forms "Master of Science" and "Master in Science" are indistinguishable in Latin, thus MSci is "Master of Natural Sciences" at the University of Cambridge.
Many universities award graduate degrees; a graduate school is not necessarily a separate institution. While the term "graduate school" is typical in the United States and often used elsewhere (e.g., Canada), "postgraduate education" is also used in English-speaking countries (Australia, Bangladesh, Canada, India, Ireland, India, New Zealand, Pakistan, and the UK) to refer to the spectrum of education beyond a bachelor's degree. Those attending graduate schools are called "graduate students" (in both American and British English), or often in British English as "postgraduate students" and, colloquially, "postgraduates" and "postgrads". Degrees awarded to graduate students include master's degrees, doctoral degrees, and other postgraduate qualifications such as graduate certificates and professional degrees.

The Chicago School is a not-for-profit, regionally accredited institution with more than 4,285 students at campuses across the country and online.  TCSPP has been an innovator in the field of psychology and related behavioral science for more than 30 years.  TCSPP offers more than 20 degree programs and a wealth of opportunities for international experiences.
Postgraduate degrees in Nigeria include M.A., M.Sc., M.Ed., M.Eng., LL.M, M.Arch., M.Agric., M.Phil., PhD. The master's degree typically take 18–36 months with students undertaking coursework and presenting seminars and a dissertation. The doctoral degree is for a minimum of 36 months and may involve coursework alongside the presentation of seminars and a research thesis. Award of postgraduate degrees requires a defence of the completed research before a panel of examiners comprising external and internal examiners, Head of Department, Departmental Postgraduate Coordinator, Representative(s) of Faculty and Postgraduate School, and any other member of staff with a PhD in the department/faculty.
Master's degrees are commonly titled using the form 'Master of ...', where either a faculty (typically Arts or Science) or a field (Engineering, Physics, Chemistry, Business Administration, etc.) is specified. The two most common titles of master's degrees are the Master of Arts (MA/M.A./A.M) and Master of Science (MSc/M.S./S.M.) degrees; which normally consist of a mixture of research and taught material.[47][48]
In Baltic countries there is a two-year education program that offers a chance to gain a master's degree in interdisciplinary issues. The system offers an education in different areas, such as humanities, environmental and social issues, whilst paying specific consideration to the Baltic Sea area. It is a joint-degree program, which is part of a team effort with four universities. There is for example the University of Tartu in Estonia, Vytautas Magnus University in Lithuania and the University of Latvia. The educational programmes allow students to be mobile within the system, for example one semester may be taken in a confederate school without paying additional membership or tuition fees. Subsequently, after passing the qualifications provided, people may procure teaching qualifications and continue their scholastic research around doctoral studies, or carry on studying within their career in the private or public sector. Graduates of the program, within the Baltic Sea area are also given the chance to continue onwards with their studies within the postgraduate system if they have studied the social sciences or humanities field.

There are 87 public universities in France, and also some private universities, and they are based upon the European education ladder including bachelors, Masters, and Ph.D.s. Students gain each degree though the successful completion of a predetermined number of years in education, gaining credits via the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS). There are over 300 doctoral programs that collaborate with 1200 research laboratories and centers. Each degree has a certain set of national diplomas that are all of equal value, irrespective of where they were issued. There are also other diplomas that are exclusive to France and are very hard to attain.

This MSE/MS concentration is primarily aimed at working engineers focused on enhancing technical and scientific skills and knowledge that will advance their careers in the broad fields of biomedical engineering, bioengineering, and biotechnology. A useful background for this concentration includes undergraduate coursework in basic biology, mechanics, and statistics/ probability. The MSE/MS master's degree with the BME concentration is delivered as an asynchronous program. Students typically enroll in one or two courses per semester. 


These psychologists study workplace behavior and ergonomics, often working to increase productivity or efficiency. The rising demand for skilled psychologists has led to an increase in the number of university programs offering degrees in industrial-organizational psychology. I-O psychologists perform a variety of functions, including hiring qualified employees, conducting tests, designing products, creating training courses, and performing research on different aspects of the workplace.
The combined MD-PhD BME program (National Institutes of Health (NIH) Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP)) is offered in conjunction with the Indiana University School of Medicine to train physician-engineers. The MD-PhD BME combined degree is for students committed to a career that intimately incorporates engineering design and translational research with clinical care. The curriculum is flexible, enabling students to design a program that meets their individual goals. A diverse body of engineering and clinical faculty with broad expertise in four signature research areas provide individualized training and mentoring to students. Graduates of this program have pursued careers in academic medicine, business start-ups, and industry. A typical academic plan permits most students to complete the combined degree program in seven or eight years.
From the late Middle Ages until the nineteenth century, the pattern of degrees was therefore to have a bachelor's and master's degree in the lower faculties and to have bachelor's and doctorates in the higher faculties. In the United States, the first master's degrees (Magister Artium, or Master of Arts) were awarded at Harvard University soon after its foundation.[4] In Scotland, the pre-Reformation universities (St Andrews, Glasgow and Aberdeen) developed so that the Scottish MA became their first degree, while in Oxford, Cambridge and Trinity College, Dublin, the MA was awarded to BA graduates of a certain standing without further examination from the late seventeenth century, its main purpose being to confer full membership of the university.[5] At Harvard the 1700 regulations required that candidates for the master's degree had to pass a public examination,[6] but by 1835 this was awarded Oxbridge-style three years after the BA.[7]
In all cases, comprehensive exams are normally both stressful and time consuming and must be passed to be allowed to proceed on to the dissertation. Passing such examinations allows the student to stay, begin doctoral research, and rise to the status of a doctoral candidate, while failing usually results in the student leaving the program or re-taking the test after some time has passed (usually a semester or a year). Some schools have an intermediate category, passing at the master's level, which allows the student to leave with a master's without having completed a master's dissertation.

Geographic Information Science (GIScience or GISci) includes the existing technologies and research areas of geographic information systems (GIS), cartography, remote sensing, photogrammetry, surveying (also termed geomatics in the U.S.), and quantitative spatial analysis. GIScience therefore addresses fundamental issues in the use of digital technology to handle...
Admission to a postgraduate degree programme in Nigeria requires a bachelor's degree with at least a Second Class Lower Division (not less than 2.75/5). Admission to Doctoral programmes requires an Academic master's degree with a minimum weighted average of 60% (B average or 4.00/5). In addition to this, applicants may be subjected to written and oral examinations depending on the school. Most universities with high numbers of applicants have more stringent admission processes.[32]
From the late Middle Ages until the nineteenth century, the pattern of degrees was therefore to have a bachelor's and master's degree in the lower faculties and to have bachelor's and doctorates in the higher faculties. In the United States, the first master's degrees (Magister Artium, or Master of Arts) were awarded at Harvard University soon after its foundation.[4] In Scotland, the pre-Reformation universities (St Andrews, Glasgow and Aberdeen) developed so that the Scottish MA became their first degree, while in Oxford, Cambridge and Trinity College, Dublin, the MA was awarded to BA graduates of a certain standing without further examination from the late seventeenth century, its main purpose being to confer full membership of the university.[5] At Harvard the 1700 regulations required that candidates for the master's degree had to pass a public examination,[6] but by 1835 this was awarded Oxbridge-style three years after the BA.[7]
It is also common for master's degree graduates to focus on a specialization or earn a license. For example, an individual with a master's degree in nursing may choose to become a nurse practitioner. In this case, they would be required to receive a license from the state in which they live as well as a certification from a national organization. A nurse practitioner can also decide to specialize in acute care, adults, pediatrics, or families.
The committee for the Master’s degree, thesis option, must consist of at least three graduate faculty members. The chairperson and at least one member must be a graduate faculty member in the Electrical and Computer Engineering department. The chairperson is usually the student’s academic advisor and should advise the student in the selection of the other committee members.
In some countries such as Finland and Sweden, there is the degree of Licentiate, which is more advanced than a master's degree but less so than a Doctorate. Credits required are about half of those required for a doctoral degree.[10] Coursework requirements are the same as for a doctorate, but the extent of original research required is not as high as for doctorate.[11][12] Medical doctors for example are typically licentiates instead of doctors.
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