Graduate students must usually declare their research goal or submit a research proposal upon entering grad school; in the case of master's degrees, there will be some flexibility (that is, one is not held to one's research proposal, although major changes, for example from premodern to modern history, are discouraged). In the case of Ph.D.s, the research direction is usually known as it will typically follow the direction of the master's research.

Students are required to complete a 12 credit hour depth/breadth requirement in order to receive a Master’s degree in ECE. To complete this depth/breadth requirement, students must take at least 9 depth credits of ECE coursework from one of the five research divisions housed in the ECE department (i.e., Computer Engineering, Devices, Electromagnetics and Energy Systems, Electronics, Signals & Systems). At least three of these nine depth credits must be at the 6000 level. In addition, students must complete at least three breadth credits of coursework in the ECE department outside of their declared depth research division. Students can determine which ECE courses are housed in each research division by referring to the research division flow charts at the end of this manual. ECE courses used to complete this depth/breadth requirement will be counted toward the minimum 18 credits of ECE coursework required for the Master’s thesis degree.
Nurses who choose an online ASN-to-MSN program often continue working while earning their degree. Many programs offer flexible schedules, including asynchronous courses with no set login times. Nursing students can choose a full- or part-time option, depending on the program. Some programs also offer accelerated options, in which nurses with an ASN complete their MSN within two years.
Applied Physics at Caltech is built on the foundations of quantum mechanicstistical physics, electromagnetic theory, mechanics, and advanced mathematics. The comparatively small size of Caltech coupled with its great strength in both the pure sciences and engineering make it possible to have a faculty with a wide interest in the application of modern physics to technology, without losing close interaction with "pure subjects."
Requirements for research-based programmes vary among universities. Generally, however, a student is not required to take taught modules as part of their candidacy. It is now common that first-year Ph.D. candidates are not regarded as permanent Ph.D. students for fear that they may not be sufficiently prepared to undertake independent research. In such cases, an alternative degree will be awarded for their previous work, usually an M.Phil. or M.Sc. by research.
The on-campus MSIT master program is a STEM program and organized in such a manner so that students will be exposed to all areas of information technology. The degree is aimed at providing a comprehensive perspective of the technology profession, and as such, will prepare students for the technological challenges in today’s industries. Offered on campus.
In some European countries, a magister is a first degree and may be considered equivalent to a modern (standardized) master's degree (e.g., the German, Austrian and Polish university Diplom/Magister, or the similar five-year Diploma awarded in several subjects in Greek,[76] Spanish, Portuguese, and other universities and polytechnics).[clarification needed]
During an ADN-to-MSN program, nursing students complete curriculum and clinical requirements. Most programs begin with undergraduate-level coursework, and some grant a BSN to nursing students as they complete the MSN prerequisites. Once students enter the MSN program, they choose a specialization and complete graduate-level coursework. MSN programs also include clinical hours to build the skills required for advanced practice roles.
A master's degree[note 1] (from Latin magister) is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.[1] A master's degree normally requires previous study at the bachelor's level, either as a separate degree or as part of an integrated course. Within the area studied, master's graduates are expected to possess advanced knowledge of a specialized body of theoretical and applied topics; high order skills in analysis, critical evaluation, or professional application; and the ability to solve complex problems and think rigorously and independently.

Women, Gender, and Sexuality Studies is the multidisciplinary study of gender and women's lives and experiences. Course work explores women's realities in such areas as the political and social sciences, health, psychology, history, literature, and the arts. Women, Gender, and Sexuality Studies programs grew out of the women's movement, involving understandings of discrimination in society and...
Art Therapy offers several advantages verbal therapy cannot. Through the creation of art, one can express thoughts, feelings, and conflicts that cannot be easily expressed through words. At ESU, you can choose to study for an MS in Art Therapy or select one of our two dual degree programs, combining Art Therapy with Clinical Counseling or Clinical Psychology.
Geography is the study of human use and interaction with the Earth and the identification of spatial and temporal variation in natural and human processes. Geography uses principles of mathematics, social science, and natural science to analyze and interpret change in the environment. Many geographic studies require a combination of field, laboratory and computational work. Geography plays an...

This program prepares students for careers in scientific research or research combined with teaching, and so its most important part is independent research. Courses are offered that give a broad treatment of both fundamental physics and specialized physics research topics. These are intended both to help a beginning graduate student prepare for research and to broaden an advanced student’s knowledge of physics. Caltech research opportunities include elementary particle physics, nuclear physics, cosmic-ray, gamma-ray, and X-ray astronomy, sub-millimetetronomy, condensed-matter physics, atomic/molecular/optical physics, quantum optics, applied physics, gravitational physics, cosmology, astrophysics, mathematical physics, biophysics, and theoretical physics.

The Australian Qualifications Framework classifies master's degrees as research, coursework or extended. Research master's degrees typically take one to two years, and two thirds of their content consists of research, research training and independent study. Coursework master's degrees typically also last one to two years, and consist mainly of structured learning with some independent research and project work or practice-related learning. Extended master's degrees typically take three to four years and contain significant practice-related learning that must be developed in collaboration with relevant professional, statutory or regulatory bodies.[61]
Modern astronomy—certainly as practiced at Caltech—is essentially astrophysics. With the goal of understanding the physical processes that govern the universe, its constituents, and their evolution, astronomy uses the apparatus and methodology of physics to gather and interpret data. In what follows, we use the terms astronomy and astrophysics interchangeably.  The primary aim of the graduate astrophysics program at Caltech is to prepare students for creative and productive careers in astrophysical research. The astrophysics program emphasizes independent research by graduate students, who are free to pursue study in virtually any area of astrophysics. The opportunity exists to take advantage of the many observational facilities owned and operated by Caltech.
During an RN-to-MSN program, nursing students complete BSN-level coursework to qualify for the MSN program. After meeting the coursework requirements, nursing students choose an MSN specialization and take graduate-level classes in their field. MSN students must also meet clinical requirements, usually 200 clinical hours in their specialization, to build hands-on experience.

Be aware that the set of rules and constraints for your degree program are actually a combination of policies defined by the CS Department, the Graduate School, and sometimes other entities such as the Registrar's Office. This site presents these rules and constraints as you must satisfy them, without necessarily explaining who is the ultimate authority for any given one. It is possible that you will seek an exemption to some rule or requirement. This is when it becomes important to find out who "owns" that rule. In general, the Graduate School defines a framework for a degree program, and a Department fleshes this out. For example, the Graduate School requires that all PhD students take a Preliminary Exam and a Final Exam. The Department is free to define the mechanics of these exams, but not their existance, nor the scheduling process. So for example, it is a Graduate School rule that there must be a certain minimum amount of time between a Preliminary Exam and a Final Exam. So only the Graduate School would be able to grant an exemption (if they were so inclined).
This concentration is built around advanced study of your primary instrument, along with courses in music history, music theory, and introductory research. In addition to private studio instruction, you also receive training in the pedagogy of your specific instrument. A graduate recital is required as the culminating capstone experience. Specializations include instrumental or vocal concentrations. Offered on campus.

Additionally, doctoral students who have advanced to candidacy but not filed a dissertation ("ABD," for "all but dissertation") often receive master's degrees and an additional master's called a Master of Philosophy, or M.Phil., or C.Phil. "Candidate in Philosophy" degree. The master's component of a doctorate program often requires one or two years, and some students, because doctoral programs are sometimes better-funded, apply for doctoral programs while only intending to earn a master's degree. This is generally not acceptable and, if a student's advisor learns of the student's plans, can result in early termination.

In the Overarching Framework of Qualifications for the European Higher Education Area defined as part of the Bologna process, a "second cycle" (i.e. master's degree) programme is typically 90–120 ECTS credits, with a minimum requirement of at least 60 ECTS credits at second-cycle level.[67] The definition of ECTS credits is that "60 ECTS credits are allocated to the learning outcomes and associated workload of a full-time academic year or its equivalent",[68] thus European master's degrees should last for between one calendar year and two academic years, with at least one academic year of study at master's level. The Framework for Higher Education Qualification (FHEQ) in England Wales and Northern Ireland level 7 qualifications and the Framework for Qualification of Higher Education Institutes in Scotland (FQHEIS) level 11 qualifications (postgraduate and integrated master's degrees, with the exception of MAs from the ancient universities of Scotland and Oxbridge MAs) have been certified as meeting this requirement.[69][70]


In the Netherlands the titles ingenieur (ir.), meester (mr.) and doctorandus (drs.) may be rendered, if obtained in the Netherlands from a university, after the application of the Bologna process, as: MSc instead of ir., LLM instead of mr. and MA or MSc instead of drs.[84] This is because a single program that led to these degree was in effect before 2002, which comprised the same course load as the bachelor and master programs put together. Those who had already started the program could, upon completing it, bear the appropriate title (MSc, LLM or MA), but alternatively still use the old-style title (ir., mr. or drs.), corresponding to their field of study. Since these graduates do not have a separate bachelor's degree (which is in fact – in retrospect – incorporated into the program), the master's degree is their first academic degree. Bearers of foreign master's degree are able to use the titles ir., mr. and drs. only after obtaining a permission to bear such titles from the Dienst Uitvoering Onderwijs. Those who received their mr., ir. or drs. title after the application of the Bologna process have the option of signing as A. Jansen, MA or A. Jansen, MSc, depending on the field in which the degree was obtained, since the ir., mr. and drs. titles are similar to a master's degree, and the shortcut MA or MSc. may officially be used in order to render such title as an international title.[85][86][87][88]
Requirements for the successful completion of a taught master's programme are that the student pass all the required modules. Some universities require eight taught modules for a one-year programme, twelve modules for a one-and-a-half-year programme, and twelve taught modules plus a thesis or dissertation for a two-year programme. The academic year for an Australian postgraduate programme is typically two semesters (eight months of study).
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