The United Auto Workers (under the slogan "Uniting Academic Workers") and the American Federation of Teachers are two international unions that represent graduate employees. Private universities' administrations often oppose their graduate students when they try to form unions, arguing that students should be exempt from labor laws intended for "employees". In some cases unionization movements have met with enough student opposition to fail. At the schools where graduate employees are unionized, which positions are unionized vary. Sometimes only one set of employees will unionize (e.g. teaching assistants, residential directors); at other times, most or all will. Typically, fellowship recipients, usually not employed by their university, do not participate.
The title of Master of Philosophy (MPhil) indicates (in the same manner as Doctor of Philosophy) an extended degree with a large research component.[49] Other generically-named masters programs include the Master of Studies (MSt)/Master of Advanced Study (MASt)/Master of Advanced Studies (M.A.S.), and Professional Master's (MProf). Integrated master's degrees and postgraduate master's degrees oriented towards professional practice are often more specifically named for their field of study ("tagged degrees"), including, for example, the Master of Business Administration, Master of Divinity, Master of Engineering and Master of Physics.
Art Therapy offers several advantages verbal therapy cannot. Through the creation of art, one can express thoughts, feelings, and conflicts that cannot be easily expressed through words. At ESU, you can choose to study for an MS in Art Therapy or select one of our two dual degree programs, combining Art Therapy with Clinical Counseling or Clinical Psychology.
The program combines individual depth of experience and competence in a particular chosen major specialty, and a strong background in the basic and engineering sciences, with laboratory and design experience. It strives to develop professional independence, creativity, leadership, and the capacity for continuing professional and intellectual growth, and the graduate program aims to provide for students a depth of competence and experience in their major field, sufficient strength in the basic sciences to allow them to continue self-education after their formal training has been completed, and the motivation and training to keep them in the forefront of their field through a long and productive career. Students are encouraged to explore work in interdisciplinary areas both within and outside the division, and to gain experience in teaching.
In the Political Science program, you'll learn the ideas of great political thinkers, controversies involved in issues as current as the front page of today's newspapers, and everything in between. You will have engaging discussions and debates from all points of view in class, with students and professors. You'll learn to think critically, write clearly and speak persuasively. You'll learn...
The Institute of Medicine’s “Vison 2020” recommends all clinical nurses hold a B.S.N., and the ACN backs their recommendation. This means that top healthcare organizations aren’t considering hiring clinical nurses without at least the B.S.N. credential. Advanced nursing roles call for a master’s or doctorate-level degree. Like many things over time, the nursing industry has expanded beyond the skills and knowledge an R.N. credential alone provides. To maintain a lifelong nursing career, or to work in one of the many new nursing positions, you need an advanced nursing degree.Nursing Degree Options.If you’re wondering what program is best for you, think about the responsibilities you enjoy as a nurse as well as what you’re naturally interested in learning.
CMS is home to outstanding students and researchers who share a passion for science and engineering, as well as a drive to investigate the most challenging, fundamental problems in computation and information.  The CMS program is a unique, new program that provides students with a cross-cutting perspective on optimization, algorithms, learning, statistics, and networks.

Modern astronomy—certainly as practiced at Caltech—is essentially astrophysics. With the goal of understanding the physical processes that govern the universe, its constituents, and their evolution, astronomy uses the apparatus and methodology of physics to gather and interpret data. In what follows, we use the terms astronomy and astrophysics interchangeably.  The primary aim of the graduate astrophysics program at Caltech is to prepare students for creative and productive careers in astrophysical research. The astrophysics program emphasizes independent research by graduate students, who are free to pursue study in virtually any area of astrophysics. The opportunity exists to take advantage of the many observational facilities owned and operated by Caltech.
Master of Science in Special Education, concentration/endorsement in Gifted, Talented and Creative (K-6, 6-12, PreK-12). Research shows teachers with training in gifted education are more likely to encourage students' higher-level thinking, allow for greater expression, consider individual student strengths and weaknesses, and provide a variety of learning experiences to challenge students. Offered online.
In Australia, master's degrees vary from one year for a "research" or "coursework" master's following on from an Australian honours degree in a related field, with an extra six months if following on straight from an ordinary bachelor's degree and another extra six months if following on from a degree in a different field, to four years for an "extended" master's degree. At some Australian universities, the master's degree may take up to two years.[61]
The Australian Qualifications Framework classifies master's degrees as research, coursework or extended. Research master's degrees typically take one to two years, and two thirds of their content consists of research, research training and independent study. Coursework master's degrees typically also last one to two years, and consist mainly of structured learning with some independent research and project work or practice-related learning. Extended master's degrees typically take three to four years and contain significant practice-related learning that must be developed in collaboration with relevant professional, statutory or regulatory bodies.[61]
The Weldon School's PhD options (post-BS or post-MS) in biomedical engineering are highly interdisciplinary in nature and involve faculty and laboratories at Purdue's College of Engineering, College of Science, School of Engineering and Technology, and the School of Veterinary Medicine on the West Lafayette campus as well as the Indiana University School of Medicine in Indianapolis. The combined faculty, staff, and facilities of the two campuses provide tremendous resources for our students. Doctoral program students work on translating discoveries into effective medical products, gaining a unique experience in converting theory to reality. These programs span modern biomedical engineering and build on a deep history of research at the Weldon School that has had significant industrial and clinical impact. Applicants with a master’s degree have the opportunity to transfer course work from that degree toward the PhD requirements, reducing the time to degree completion.
This program prepares students for careers in scientific research or research combined with teaching, and so its most important part is independent research. Courses are offered that give a broad treatment of both fundamental physics and specialized physics research topics. These are intended both to help a beginning graduate student prepare for research and to broaden an advanced student’s knowledge of physics. Caltech research opportunities include elementary particle physics, nuclear physics, cosmic-ray, gamma-ray, and X-ray astronomy, sub-millimetetronomy, condensed-matter physics, atomic/molecular/optical physics, quantum optics, applied physics, gravitational physics, cosmology, astrophysics, mathematical physics, biophysics, and theoretical physics.
At most institutions, decisions regarding admission are not made by the institution itself but the department to which the student is applying. Some departments may require interviews before making a decision to accept an applicant.[7] Most universities adhere to the Council of Graduate Schools' Resolution Regarding Graduate Scholars, Fellows, Trainees, and Assistants, which gives applicants until April 15 to accept or reject offers that contain financial support.[12]
Master of Science, Instructional Specialist - Elementary Content concentration. The Instruction Specialist program is intended for the teaching practitioner in settings from early childhood through adolescence and young adulthood. This concentration allows the practitioner to strengthen their teaching in core elementary subject areas. Offered online and at the Olathe school district.
The Professional Science Master’s degree in Fisheries and Wildlife Administration (PSMFWA) provides advanced training for recently finished undergraduates looking to enter the workforce or early-career professionals employed by natural resources agencies, non-government organizations, and other entities seeking to advance their careers. The PSMFWA also provides an opportunity for employers to...
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For the next several years the doctoral candidate primarily performs his or her research. Usually this lasts three to eight years, though a few finish more quickly, and some take substantially longer. In total, the typical doctoral degree takes between four and eight years from entering the program to completion, though this time varies depending upon the department, dissertation topic, and many other factors. For example, astronomy degrees take five to six years on average, but observational astronomy degrees take six to seven due to limiting factors of weather, while theoretical astronomy degrees take five.
At the start of the twentieth century there were therefore four different sorts of master's degree in the UK: the Scottish MA, granted as a first degree; the Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin), granted to all BA graduates a certain period after their first degree without further study; master's degrees that could be gained either by further study or by gaining an honours degree (which, at the time in the UK involved further study beyond the ordinary degree, as it still does in Scotland and some Commonwealth countries); and master's degrees that could only be obtained by further study (including all London master's degrees). In 1903, the London Daily News criticised the practice of Oxford and Cambridge, calling their MAs "the most stupendous of academic frauds" and "bogus degrees".[30] Ensuing correspondence pointed out that "A Scotch M.A., at the most, is only the equivalent of an English B.A." and called for common standards for degrees, while defenders of the ancient universities said that "the Cambridge M.A. does not pretend to be a reward of learning" and that "it is rather absurd to describe one of their degrees as a bogus one because other modern Universities grant the same degree for different reasons".[31][32]
Graduate students often declare their intended degree (master's or doctorate) in their applications. In some cases, master's programs allow successful students to continue toward the doctorate degree. Additionally, doctoral students who have advanced to candidacy but not filed a dissertation ("ABD", for "all but dissertation") often receive master's degrees and an additional master's called a Master of Philosophy (MPhil) or a Candidate of Philosophy (C.Phil.) degree. The master's component of a doctorate program often requires one or two years.
The Australian government usually offer full funding (fees and a monthly stipend) to its citizens and permanent residents who are pursuing research-based higher degrees. There are also highly competitive scholarships for international candidates who intend to pursue research-based programmes. Taught-degree scholarships (certain master's degrees, Grad. Dip., Grad. Cert., D.Eng., D.B.A.) are almost non-existent for international students, so they are usually required to be self-funded.