Many graduate programs require students to pass one or several examinations in order to demonstrate their competence as scholars.[6] In some departments, a comprehensive examination is often required in the first year of doctoral study, and is designed to test a student's background undergraduate-level knowledge. Examinations of this type are more common in the sciences and some social sciences but relatively unknown in most humanities disciplines.
In 1900, Dartmouth College introduced the Master of Commercial Science (MCS), first awarded in 1902. This was the first master's degree in business, the forerunner of the modern MBA.[33] The idea quickly crossed the Atlantic, with Manchester establishing a Faculty of Commerce, awarding Bachelor and Master of Commerce degrees, in 1903.[34] Over the first half of the century the automatic master's degrees for honours graduates vanished as honours degrees became the standard undergraduate qualification in the UK. In the 1960s, new Scottish universities (with the exception of Dundee, which inherited the undergraduate MA from St Andrews) reintroduced the BA as their undergraduate degree in Arts, restoring the MA to its position as a postgraduate qualification. Oxford and Cambridge retained their MAs, but renamed many of their postgraduate bachelor's degrees in the higher faculties as master's degrees, e.g. the Cambridge LLB became the LLM in 1982,[35] and the Oxford BLitt, BPhil (except in philosophy) and BSc became the MLitt, MPhil and MSc.[36]
In Italy the master's degree is equivalent to the two-year Laurea magistrale, which can be earned after a Laurea (a three-year undergraduate degree, equivalent to a bachelor's degree). In particular fields, namely law, pharmacy and medicine, this distinction is not made. University courses are therefore single and last five to six years, after which the master's degree is awarded (in this case referred to as Laurea magistrale a ciclo unico). The old Laurea degree (Vecchio Ordinamento, Old Regulations), which was the only awarded in Italy before the Bologna process, is equivalent[83] to the current Laurea Magistrale.
Enrolling in a master's degree program is a significant investment. And as the earnings studies from the Bureau of Labor Statistics show, it can be a very worthwhile one. But those higher earnings start to come in, tuition (and other) bills need to be paid in the short term. Fortunately, there are a number of financial resources that can help make a master's degree program more affordable. Scholarships, grants, and educational loans are all designed to aid eligible master's degree students in paying for tuition, books, and living expenses.
Many departments, especially those in which students have research or teaching responsibilities, offer tuition-forgiveness and a stipend that pays for most expenses. At some elite universities, there may be a minimum stipend established for all Ph.D. students, as well as a tuition waiver. The terms of these stipends vary greatly, and may consist of a scholarship or fellowship, followed by teaching responsibilities. At many elite universities, these stipends have been increasing, in response both to student pressure and, especially, to competition among the elite universities for graduate students.

There are 87 public universities in France, and also some private universities, and they are based upon the European education ladder including bachelors, Masters, and Ph.D.s. Students gain each degree though the successful completion of a predetermined number of years in education, gaining credits via the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS). There are over 300 doctoral programs that collaborate with 1200 research laboratories and centers. Each degree has a certain set of national diplomas that are all of equal value, irrespective of where they were issued. There are also other diplomas that are exclusive to France and are very hard to attain.


Students who are considering pursing an advanced degree at the graduate degree level often have many questions about what to expect in grad school. Going to graduate school is both a costly and time-consuming endeavor and students may feel nervous about committing to advancing their education. You are not alone. At some point in time the frequently asked questions we have gathered have been asked by one student or another. We are hear to help provide answers to these questions the best we can. Let's start with the question of popularity. To the right, we have listed popular subjects our users visit often.
A research-based master’s degree program at the Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering is available for Indiana University School of Medicine medical students seeking to earn both MD and MS BME degrees. The seamless integration of the timelines for the two degrees allows these students to complete both degrees in five years. The MS BME/MD program leverages the students’ clinical training and medical school coursework to advance innovative engineering solutions for challenges in healthcare delivery. Significant areas for translational research projects include implantable medical devices, engineered tissues and biomaterials, point-of-care diagnostics, advanced medical imaging, and systems engineering of healthcare delivery. Students earning this degree gain firsthand knowledge of medical technology innovation and strategies for clinical translation. They will strengthen their ability to pursue medical research, to facilitate clinical testing of new therapies, and to collaborate effectively with the biomedical industry.
Current federal mandates and trends in public schools recognize the growing importance of early childhood special education services for children from birth through age eight and their families. Teachers with advanced training in their field will be in a favored position to usher in best practices for young children. Graduate degree. Offered online.
In Nepal, after bachelor's degree about to at least three or four years with full-time study in college and university with an entrance test for those people who want to study further can study in master and further Ph.D. and doctorate degree. All doctoral and Ph.D. or third cycle degree are based on research and experience oriented and result based. Master of Engineering (M.Eng.), Master of Education (M.Ed.), Master of Arts (M.A.) and all law and medicine related courses are studied after completion of successful bachelor towards doctoral degree. M.B.B.S. is only a medical degree with six and half years of study resulting medical doctor and need to finish its study o 4 years of period joining after master degree with minimum education with 15 or 16 years of university bachelor's degree education. The most professional and internationalised program in Nepal are as follows:
Graduate students in the Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences enter with diverse undergraduate preparation—majors in astronomy, biology, chemistry, mathematics, and physics, as well as in geochemistry, geology, and geophysics. Graduate study and research within the division are equally diverse, and the graduate program aims to provide for students a depth of competence and experience in their major field, sufficient strength in the basic sciences to allow them to continue self-education after their formal training has been completed, and the motivation and training to keep them in the forefront of their field through a long and productive career. Students are encouraged to explore work in interdisciplinary areas both within and outside the division, and to gain experience in teaching.
Below is a list of all graduate degree and certificate programs offered at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. A graduate degree or certificate is awarded upon completion of a specified program of study in a major field. Degree titles are posted on transcripts and diplomas, while the titles of majors and certificates are only posted on transcripts. The Graduate School Catalog provides further details about each degree and certificate program, and you can download a PDF version of the list of graduate degrees and certificate programs.

Master of Science is generally abbreviated M.S. or MS in countries following United States usage and MSc in countries following British usage, where MS would refer to the degree of Master of Surgery. In Australia, some extended master's degrees use the title "doctor": Juris doctor and Doctors of Medical Practice, Physiotherapy, Dentistry, Optometry and Veterinary Practice. Despite their titles these are still master's degree and may not be referred to as doctoral degrees, nor may graduates use the title "doctor".[55]

Prior to 2004, when the European system of LMD Bologna process was founded, the French equivalent of a Post Graduate degree was called a "Maitrise." For historical reasons dating back to the French Revolution of 1789, France has a dual education system, with Grandes Écoles on one side, and universities on the other hand, with the Grandes Écoles being considered as much more prestigious. Some Grandes écoles deliver the French diplôme d'ingénieur, which is ranked as a master's degree.
In some European countries, a magister is a first degree and may be considered equivalent to a modern (standardized) master's degree (e.g., the German, Austrian and Polish university Diplom/Magister, or the similar five-year Diploma awarded in several subjects in Greek,[76] Spanish, Portuguese, and other universities and polytechnics).[clarification needed]
Requirements for research-based programmes vary among universities. Generally, however, a student is not required to take taught modules as part of their candidacy. It is now common that first-year Ph.D. candidates are not regarded as permanent Ph.D. students for fear that they may not be sufficiently prepared to undertake independent research. In such cases, an alternative degree will be awarded for their previous work, usually an M.Phil. or M.Sc. by research.
In some fields, research positions are more coveted than teaching positions because student researchers are typically paid to work on the dissertation they are required to complete anyway, while teaching is generally considered a distraction from one's work. Research positions are more typical of science disciplines; they are relatively uncommon in humanities disciplines, and where they exist, rarely allow the student to work on their own research. Science PhD students can apply for individual NRSA fellowships from the NIH or fellowships from private foundations. US universities often also offer competitive support from NIH-funded training programs. One example is the Biotechnology Training Program – University of Virginia. Departments often have funds for limited discretionary funding to supplement minor expenses such as research trips and travel to conferences.

Within the sciences and some social sciences, previous research experience may be important.[6][9] By contrast, within most humanities disciplines, an example of academic writing normally suffices. Many universities require a personal statement (sometimes called Statement of purpose or Letter of Intent), which may include indications of the intended area(s) of research;[7] how detailed this statement is or whether it is possible to change one's focus of research depends strongly on the discipline and department to which the student is applying.
An online BSN-to-MSN appeals to nurses seeking career advancement who prefer the flexibility of an online learning format. Applicants to BSN-to-MSN programs must hold a current, valid RN license, provide proof of a bachelor of science in nursing, and meet the program's GPA minimum. Many programs also ask for letters of recommendation, a resume, and a statement of purpose. After entering the MSN program, nursing students complete coursework in their specialization and meet clinical requirements.
Graduate study at the Institute is divided further into several graduate options, which are supervised by those faculty whose interests and research are closely related to the area of the option. Entering graduate students are admitted into one of the following options working towards a specific degree.  Almost all options offer the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), and a few options will admit students to a terminal Master's (MS).  In all other options, the Master's degree is awarded under special circumstances only.  Please check the departmental websites and/or the Institute Catalog for a list of the degrees offered.
Upon completion of this concentration students are highly marketable and are likely to obtain positions that require geospatial analyses, ranging from environmental positions to military intelligence and private consulting. Graduates work in areas as diverse as environmental organizations to the oil and minerals industry, utility and transportation companies, spatial network management, and other fields. Offered online or on campus.
The increased prevalence of online master's degree programs may be one reason why degrees conferred at this level have increased by 66 percent since the 2000-01 academic year. In the 2015-16 term, 786,000 master's degrees were awarded by post-secondary institutions. Over half of them were concentrated in the business, education, and healthcare fields.

Students must usually declare their research goal or submit a research proposal upon entering graduate school; in the case of master's degrees, there will be some flexibility (that is, one is not held to one's research proposal, although major changes, for example from premodern to modern history, are discouraged). In the case of Ph.D.s, the research direction is usually known as it will typically follow the direction of the master's research.
The MS non-thesis final exam will be administered each semester and students will complete their mock job interview during their second semester of enrollment. Students will register for their mock job interview via a registration web form and will select a preferred research division from which a faculty member will be assigned to conduct the interview. After the registration period closes, the student will receive a faculty assignment from the ECE Graduate Advisor. Each student will be responsible for emailing their assigned faculty member to set up a mock job interview. Interviews will need to be completed before the stated deadline for the semester.

The Department of Mathematics offers graduate programs leading to the M.A., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in Mathematics with research emphasis possible in a variety of areas within pure and applied mathematics and in mathematics education. There are active faculty research groups in algebra and number theory, analysis, applied mathematics, geometry and topology, mathematical biology, mathematics...


Nursing students in a BSN-to-MSN program take classes in advanced health assessment, patient care, and evidence-based practice. Students also choose an MSN specialization, such as midwifery, anesthesiology, or gerontology. Many MSN programs also offer tracks for nurse practitioners. Most programs require at least 200 clinical hours, with some nurse practitioner programs requiring over 600 hours.
The master’s degree in elementary education at Emporia State is designed for career changers who are interested in teaching elementary school. With online courses and a clinical experience placement near you, you can earn a master’s degree without changing locations. In as little as two years, you will be eligible for an elementary education teaching license. When you finish your degree, you will enter the teaching profession at the master’s degree level on the pay scale. A background in the education field is not required.
Higher Education, M.S.Ed. Education, Culture, and Society, M.S.Ed. Teaching, Learning, and Learning, M.S.Ed. Reading/Writing/Literacy, M.S.Ed. Policy, Master of Science (M.S.) in Statistics, Measurement, Assessment, and Research Technology (SM Counseling and Mental Health Services Executive Program in School and Mental Health Counseling Quantitative Methods School Leadership Microbiology, Virology, and Parasitology Environmental Studies MBA/MA in International Studies Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages - TESOL History - Master Intercultural Communication Landscape Architecture - Master Language and Literacy - Master Master of Biotechnology Learning Science and Technologies Interdisciplinary Studies in Human Development - Master Graduate Group in Electrical Engineering - Master Mathematics - Master Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics - Master Teacher Education: Secondary Comparative Physiology

Master's candidates undertaking research are typically required to complete a thesis comprising some original research and ranging from seventy to two-hundred pages. Some fields may require candidates to study at least one foreign language if they have not already earned sufficient foreign-language credits. Some faculties require candidates to defend their thesis, but many do not. Those that do not, often have a requirement of taking two additional courses, at minimum, in lieu of preparing a thesis.
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