The title of Master of Philosophy (MPhil) indicates (in the same manner as Doctor of Philosophy) an extended degree with a large research component.[49] Other generically-named masters programs include the Master of Studies (MSt)/Master of Advanced Study (MASt)/Master of Advanced Studies (M.A.S.), and Professional Master's (MProf). Integrated master's degrees and postgraduate master's degrees oriented towards professional practice are often more specifically named for their field of study ("tagged degrees"), including, for example, the Master of Business Administration, Master of Divinity, Master of Engineering and Master of Physics.
Though many students pursue graduate studies in the same field in which they received their bachelor's degree, undergraduate and graduate degrees don't have to match. For instance, if you earned a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) in Psychology, you could pursue a Master of Arts (M.A.) in English or even a Master of Business Administration (M.B.A.). Similarly, if you earned a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) in Engineering, you could choose to pursue a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Theology. Students have the opportunity to either advance in the same field or branch out to another field, depending on their career goals.
In Baltic countries there is a two-year education program that offers a chance to gain a master's degree in interdisciplinary issues. The system offers an education in different areas, such as humanities, environmental and social issues, whilst paying specific consideration to the Baltic Sea area. It is a joint-degree program, which is part of a team effort with four universities. There is for example the University of Tartu in Estonia, Vytautas Magnus University in Lithuania and the University of Latvia. The educational programmes allow students to be mobile within the system, for example one semester may be taken in a confederate school without paying additional membership or tuition fees. Subsequently, after passing the qualifications provided, people may procure teaching qualifications and continue their scholastic research around doctoral studies, or carry on studying within their career in the private or public sector. Graduates of the program, within the Baltic Sea area are also given the chance to continue onwards with their studies within the postgraduate system if they have studied the social sciences or humanities field.
It was not until 1837 that separate examinations were reintroduced for the MA in England, at the newly established Durham University (even though, as in the ancient English universities, this was to confer full membership), to be followed in 1840 by the similarly new University of London, which was only empowered by its charter to grant degrees by examination.[13][14][15] However, by the middle of the century the MA as an examined second degree was again under threat, with Durham moving to awarding it automatically to those who gained honours in the BA in 1857, along the lines of the Oxbridge MA, and Edinburgh following the other Scottish universities in awarding the MA as its first degree, in place of the BA, from 1858.[16] At the same time, new universities were being established around the then British Empire along the lines of London, including examinations for the MA: the University of Sydney in Australia and the Queen's University of Ireland in 1850, and the Universities of Bombay (now the University of Mumbai), Madras and Calcutta in India in 1857.
The Master of Science in Forensic Science program at Emporia State University was developed with the input of crime lab directors across the Midwest to ensure that it was preparing students for the workforce. The opportunity to learn from practitioners and professors and the one-on-one guidance ensure a quality education with opportunities not found elsewhere.
Admission to a master's degree normally requires successful completion of study at bachelor's degree level either (for postgraduate degrees) as a stand-alone degree or (for integrated degrees) as part of an integrated scheme of study. In countries where the bachelor's degree with honours is the standard undergraduate degree, this is often the normal entry qualification.[59][72] In addition, students will normally have to write a personal statement and, in the arts and humanities, will often have to submit a portfolio of work.[73]
Doctoral students generally spend roughly their first two to three years taking coursework and begin research by their second year if not before. Many master's and all specialist students will perform research culminating in a paper, presentation, and defense of their research. This is called the master's thesis (or, for Educational Specialist students, the specialist paper). However, many US master's degree programs do not require a master's thesis, focusing instead primarily on coursework or on "practicals" or "workshops". Some students complete a final culminating project or "capstone" rather than a thesis. Such "real-world" experience may typically require a candidate work on a project alone or in a team as a consultant, or consultants, for an outside entity approved or selected by the academic institution and under faculty supervision.
The MA degree in History is designed for history students with a wide variety of interests, including those intending to continue on for Ph.D. work in history; secondary education teachers interested in graduate work concentrating on history, political science, or geography; and those interested in a career in public history. Other students also may find the program suitable, depending on their individual aspirations.
During an RN-to-MSN program, nursing students complete BSN-level coursework to qualify for the MSN program. After meeting the coursework requirements, nursing students choose an MSN specialization and take graduate-level classes in their field. MSN students must also meet clinical requirements, usually 200 clinical hours in their specialization, to build hands-on experience.

The graduate minor in Water Conflict Management and Transformation is designed to accommodate the needs of professionals and graduate students. It offers an integrative approach that explicitly integrates human and policy dimensions of water resources within the framework of scientific and technological solutions. This minor is a flexible, coherent program that offers critical and...
Year two of a master's degree program typically involves completing core classes and related electives. This is also the time when they can gain work experience from an internship. Depending on the the field of study, this year may also involve preparing for a licensing exam.Some master's degree programs require a dissertation or thesis, which is a final research paper in which a student selects a topic and performs research related to it.
Rural communities—both in the U.S. and globally—face an extraordinarily complex set of challenges due to sparse settlements and geographic isolation, exacerbated by globalization and technological change in an interdependent urban-rural system. Addressing these challenges requires both the theoretical insights of multiple disciplines and the practical wisdom that derives from engagement in...
In the UK, students will normally need to have a 2:1. Students may also have to provide evidence of their ability to successfully pursue a postgraduate degree to be accepted into a taught master's course, and possibly higher for a research master's.[74] Graduate schools in the US similarly require strong undergraduate performance, and may require students to take one or more standardised tests, such as the GRE, GMAT or LSAT.[75]
Traditionally, doctoral programs were only intended to last three to four years and, in some disciplines (primarily the natural sciences), with a helpful advisor, and a light teaching load, it is possible for the degree to be completed in that amount of time. However, increasingly many disciplines, including most humanities, set their requirements for coursework, languages and the expected extent of thesis research by the assumption that students will take five years minimum or six to seven years on average; competition for jobs within these fields also raises expectations on the length and quality of theses considerably.
An MSN prepares nurses for several advanced practice roles, which bring higher salaries and greater responsibility. For example, nurse practitioners must hold an MSN, which qualifies them to prescribe medication and act as a primary care provider. The following jobs with a master's degree in nursing represent options for nurses who pursue a graduate degree.

MA in Education and Human Development in Educational Leadership and Administration Master of Arts in Education and Human Development in Special Education for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners MA in Education and Human Development in Interdisciplinary Secondary Transition Services MSHS in Integrative Medicine - FELLOWSHIP MSHS in Integrative Medicine MSHS in Integrative Medicine - NUTRITION Political Management MA in Education and Human Development in Educational Technology Leadership MA in Education and Human Development in Organizational Leadership and Learning Strategic Public Relations Master of Business Administration in Healthcare MSHS in Regulatory Affairs MSHS in Health Care Quality MSHS in Correctional Health Administration Dual Degree: BSHS/MSHS in Clinical Research Administration MSHS in Biomedical Informatics MSHS in Translational Microbiology MSHS in Molecular Diagnostic Sciences MSHS in Laboratory Medicine MSHS in Immunohematology and Biotechnology MSHS in Clinical Operations and Healthcare Management MSHS in Clinical Microbiology


It was not until 1837 that separate examinations were reintroduced for the MA in England, at the newly established Durham University (even though, as in the ancient English universities, this was to confer full membership), to be followed in 1840 by the similarly new University of London, which was only empowered by its charter to grant degrees by examination.[13][14][15] However, by the middle of the century the MA as an examined second degree was again under threat, with Durham moving to awarding it automatically to those who gained honours in the BA in 1857, along the lines of the Oxbridge MA, and Edinburgh following the other Scottish universities in awarding the MA as its first degree, in place of the BA, from 1858.[16] At the same time, new universities were being established around the then British Empire along the lines of London, including examinations for the MA: the University of Sydney in Australia and the Queen's University of Ireland in 1850, and the Universities of Bombay (now the University of Mumbai), Madras and Calcutta in India in 1857.
Most master degree programs require 1-2 years of study, depending on the program type and enrollment. This may entail completing around 36 to 54 semester credits or 60 to 90 quarter semester credits; equivalent to about 12 to 18 graduate-level courses. Of course, program lengths and course requirements vary by school and type of Master's Degree Program.
Oregon State University's Applied Economics Graduate Program offers M.S., M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in Applied Economics. The curricula provide, at both master’s and doctoral levels: (i) a foundation of rigorous core courses in economic theory, econometrics, and other quantitative methods; and (ii) areas of concentration in resource and environmental economics, trade and development, and other...
In Scotland, Edinburgh maintained separate BA and MA degrees until the mid nineteenth century,[11] although there were major doubts as to the quality of the Scottish degrees of this period. In 1832 Lord Brougham, the Lord Chancellor and an alumnus of the University of Edinburgh, told the House of Lords that "In England the Universities conferred degrees after a considerable period of residence, after much labour performed, and if they were not in all respects so rigorous as the statutes of the Universities required, nevertheless it could not be said, that Masters of Arts were created at Oxford and Cambridge as they were in Scotland, without any residence, or without some kind of examination. In Scotland all the statutes of the Universities which enforced conditions on the grant of degrees were a dead letter."[12]

Graduate students often declare their intended degree (master's or doctorate) in their applications. In some cases, master's programs allow successful students to continue toward the doctorate degree. Additionally, doctoral students who have advanced to candidacy but not filed a dissertation ("ABD", for "all but dissertation") often receive master's degrees and an additional master's called a Master of Philosophy (MPhil) or a Candidate of Philosophy (C.Phil.) degree. The master's component of a doctorate program often requires one or two years.

Human development and family studies offers graduate work leading to master of science and doctor of philosophy degrees. Graduate programs take a multidisciplinary approach, preparing students for college and university teaching and research, as well as development, administration, and evaluation of programs serving individuals and families across the lifespan.

At Emporia State you get it all - academic quality, excellent student experience and results that make your resume stand out from the crowd. Our education is incredibly affordable and without compromise. At ESU you can choose the type of program that will work for you - on-campus or online. Our small size affords you individual attention through engaging, challenging courses with limitless opportunities.
The Applied Mechanics department was founded nearly five decades ago to focus on research and education in the areas of solid mechanics and dynamics. Current research is mainly in the area of dynamics, dealing with topics such as vibrations of structures and machinery, structural response to earthquakes, including system identification and control of structural response, and fundamental studies of the behavior of nonlinear dynamical systems.
The Bologna declaration in 1999 started the Bologna Process, leading to the creation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). This established a three-cycle bachelor's—master's—doctorate classification of degrees, leading to the adoption of master's degrees across the continent, often replacing older long-cycle qualifications such as the Magister (arts), Diplom (sciences) and state registration (professional) awards in Germany.[45] As the process continued, descriptors were introduced for all three levels in 2004, and ECTS credit guidelines were developed. This led to questions as to the status of the integrated master's degrees and one-year master's degrees in the UK.[46] However, the Framework for Higher Education Qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and the Framework for Qualifications of Higher Education Institutes in Scotland have both been aligned with the overarching framework for the EHEA with these being accepted as master's-level qualifications.

Babson College is the premier educational institution for developing entrepreneurs of all kinds. Our AACSB-accredited graduate business programs, immersive and action-based curricula, engaged global network, and tight-knit community promote entrepreneurship as a make-it-happen mindset that can be applied to all business situations. That’s why we’re ranked #1 for Entrepreneurship (MBA) by U.S. News & World Report and #1 for Percentage of Alumni Who Start a Business After College (MBA) by Financial Times.


This graduate program combines a strong social science faculty with a strong biological and ecological science faculty and so provides an unusual opportunity to focus on the interface of social science and ecology. The FES graduate program provides specific disciplinary opportunities in both ecological and social sciences in the natural resource setting but also strives to develop...
Geography is the study of human use and interaction with the Earth and the identification of spatial and temporal variation in natural and human processes. Geography uses principles of mathematics, social science, and natural science to analyze and interpret change in the environment. Many geographic studies require a combination of field, laboratory and computational work. Geography plays an...

Agricultural Education offers course work that serves teachers and leaders in agriculture. The M.S, M.Ag. and M.A.I.S. degrees may be pursued with an emphasis in leadership, communication, pedagogy, extension and/or technical agriculture. Candidates work with an adviser to develop programs that meet their specific needs as indicated by their occupational objectives.


The department offers a Master of Science degree, a Master of Engineering degree, and a Doctoral degree in Computer Science. In addition, by satisfying additional requirements, any of these degrees can be awarded with an annotation in the student’s transcript with a BioInformatics opion. We also have certificates available in Data Analytics, Urban Computing, and Human-Computer Interaction.
The department offers graduate work leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Statistics. Students can concentrate on theory or applications, and programs can be tailored to emphasize such areas of interest as ecology, engineering, forestry, genetics/genomics and computational biology, mathematics, or oceanography. All students obtain experience as statistical consultants for problems in a variety...
In the Netherlands the titles ingenieur (ir.), meester (mr.) and doctorandus (drs.) may be rendered, if obtained in the Netherlands from a university, after the application of the Bologna process, as: MSc instead of ir., LLM instead of mr. and MA or MSc instead of drs.[84] This is because a single program that led to these degree was in effect before 2002, which comprised the same course load as the bachelor and master programs put together. Those who had already started the program could, upon completing it, bear the appropriate title (MSc, LLM or MA), but alternatively still use the old-style title (ir., mr. or drs.), corresponding to their field of study. Since these graduates do not have a separate bachelor's degree (which is in fact – in retrospect – incorporated into the program), the master's degree is their first academic degree. Bearers of foreign master's degree are able to use the titles ir., mr. and drs. only after obtaining a permission to bear such titles from the Dienst Uitvoering Onderwijs. Those who received their mr., ir. or drs. title after the application of the Bologna process have the option of signing as A. Jansen, MA or A. Jansen, MSc, depending on the field in which the degree was obtained, since the ir., mr. and drs. titles are similar to a master's degree, and the shortcut MA or MSc. may officially be used in order to render such title as an international title.[85][86][87][88]
While the undergrad years are marked by generalist coursework, graduate school typically entails more highly-focused studies and research in a chosen discipline. To this end, many grad school programs encourage students to narrow down their interests through a concentration. This focal area is often used to anchor independent research, internship experience, supervised practice and/or teaching. Learn more about the basics of grad school and view a comprehensive list of Grad School Majors.
Up to 18 hours of Special Topics (EEL 5934, 6935, and 7936) may be applied toward the degree. Up to six hours of unstructured credit hours total (EEL 5905, EEL 6905 or EGN 5949) may be applied toward the degree. Students can count a maximum of 3 credits of EGN 5949 toward their degree program. No other S/U credit can be counted toward the degree. All non‐thesis students are required to have a one‐member supervisory committee. The ECE department chair serves as the default non‐thesis committee member for all non‐thesis students and is automatically appointed for all non‐thesis students during their graduating semester. Students must receive a final grade of “C” or better to receive degree credit for a letter graded course. A course with a final grade of “C” and above cannot be repeated for credit. If a student receives a grade less than a “C” for a course, s/he may retake the course and an average of both grades will be used when compiling GPA graduation requirements. Courses in which students receive a grade of “C‐“ or lower will not be used to fulfill credit requirements but will adversely affect a students’ GPA.

Marine Resource Management (MRM) is a science-based, interdisciplinary master's program based in the College of Earth, Ocean, and Astmospheric Science (CEOAS). The program provides students with the multidisciplinary training necessary to function confidently and effectively in professional resource management positions. Marine and coastal issues are technically and politically complex,...
The program combines individual depth of experience and competence in a particular chosen major specialty, and a strong background in the basic and engineering sciences, with laboratory and design experience. It strives to develop professional independence, creativity, leadership, and the capacity for continuing professional and intellectual growth, and the graduate program aims to provide for students a depth of competence and experience in their major field, sufficient strength in the basic sciences to allow them to continue self-education after their formal training has been completed, and the motivation and training to keep them in the forefront of their field through a long and productive career. Students are encouraged to explore work in interdisciplinary areas both within and outside the division, and to gain experience in teaching.
This 18-credit graduate credential will help prepare you to link scientists, decision-makers, and stakeholders when managing recreational and commercial fisheries and fish habitat and contribute towards the general conservation of aquatic resources.  Through quality courses, you can practice skills in biology, economy, law and social science as you deal with issues across a wide range of...
At many universities, graduate students are employed by their university to teach classes or do research. While all graduate employees are graduate students, many graduate students are not employees. MBA students, for example, usually pay tuition and do not have paid teaching or research positions. In many countries graduate employees have collectively organized labor unions in order to bargain a contract with their university. In Canada, for example, almost all graduate employees are members of a CUPE local.
It's essential for prospective students to search for online master's degree programs that are accredited. An accredited master's degree program has gone through a rigorous process to verify that it provides quality education to students. Enrolling in an accredited master's degree program is a critical first step in helping a student qualify for financial aid. Having a degree from an accredited online or traditional institution can also make a candidate more competitive in the job market.
Geography is the study of human use and interaction with the Earth and the identification of spatial and temporal variation in natural and human processes. Geography uses principles of mathematics, social science, and natural science to analyze and interpret change in the environment. Many geographic studies require a combination of field, laboratory and computational work. Geography plays an...
The Crop and Soil Science department offer graduate programs, with specialization in various fields of soil science, leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. Supporting course work is chosen for each student from the basic sciences and other related fields. Original research is an essential part of M.S. and Ph.D. programs. Each program is individually designed by the student and his or her graduate...
For the next several years, the doctoral candidate primarily performs his or her research. Usually this lasts three to eight years, though a few finish more quickly and some take substantially longer. In total, the typical doctoral degree takes between four and eight years from entering the program to completion though this time varies depending upon the department, thesis topic, and many other factors.
At Emporia State you get it all - academic quality, excellent student experience and results that make your resume stand out from the crowd. Our education is incredibly affordable and without compromise. At ESU you can choose the type of program that will work for you - on-campus or online. Our small size affords you individual attention through engaging, challenging courses with limitless opportunities.
In the Netherlands the titles ingenieur (ir.), meester (mr.) and doctorandus (drs.) may be rendered, if obtained in the Netherlands from a university, after the application of the Bologna process, as: MSc instead of ir., LLM instead of mr. and MA or MSc instead of drs.[84] This is because a single program that led to these degree was in effect before 2002, which comprised the same course load as the bachelor and master programs put together. Those who had already started the program could, upon completing it, bear the appropriate title (MSc, LLM or MA), but alternatively still use the old-style title (ir., mr. or drs.), corresponding to their field of study. Since these graduates do not have a separate bachelor's degree (which is in fact – in retrospect – incorporated into the program), the master's degree is their first academic degree. Bearers of foreign master's degree are able to use the titles ir., mr. and drs. only after obtaining a permission to bear such titles from the Dienst Uitvoering Onderwijs. Those who received their mr., ir. or drs. title after the application of the Bologna process have the option of signing as A. Jansen, MA or A. Jansen, MSc, depending on the field in which the degree was obtained, since the ir., mr. and drs. titles are similar to a master's degree, and the shortcut MA or MSc. may officially be used in order to render such title as an international title.[85][86][87][88]
The Bologna declaration in 1999 started the Bologna Process, leading to the creation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). This established a three-cycle bachelor's—master's—doctorate classification of degrees, leading to the adoption of master's degrees across the continent, often replacing older long-cycle qualifications such as the Magister (arts), Diplom (sciences) and state registration (professional) awards in Germany.[45] As the process continued, descriptors were introduced for all three levels in 2004, and ECTS credit guidelines were developed. This led to questions as to the status of the integrated master's degrees and one-year master's degrees in the UK.[46] However, the Framework for Higher Education Qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and the Framework for Qualifications of Higher Education Institutes in Scotland have both been aligned with the overarching framework for the EHEA with these being accepted as master's-level qualifications.
Applied Physics at Caltech is built on the foundations of quantum mechanicstistical physics, electromagnetic theory, mechanics, and advanced mathematics. The comparatively small size of Caltech coupled with its great strength in both the pure sciences and engineering make it possible to have a faculty with a wide interest in the application of modern physics to technology, without losing close interaction with "pure subjects."
Many universities award graduate degrees; a graduate school is not necessarily a separate institution. While the term "graduate school" is typical in the United States and often used elsewhere (e.g., Canada), "postgraduate education" is also used in English-speaking countries (Australia, Bangladesh, Canada, India, Ireland, India, New Zealand, Pakistan, and the UK) to refer to the spectrum of education beyond a bachelor's degree. Those attending graduate schools are called "graduate students" (in both American and British English), or often in British English as "postgraduate students" and, colloquially, "postgraduates" and "postgrads". Degrees awarded to graduate students include master's degrees, doctoral degrees, and other postgraduate qualifications such as graduate certificates and professional degrees.
Traditionally, doctoral programs were only intended to last three to four years and, in some disciplines (primarily the natural sciences), with a helpful advisor, and a light teaching load, it is possible for the degree to be completed in that amount of time. However, increasingly many disciplines, including most humanities, set their requirements for coursework, languages and the expected extent of thesis research by the assumption that students will take five years minimum or six to seven years on average; competition for jobs within these fields also raises expectations on the length and quality of theses considerably.
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