Over the past two decades, it has become ever more apparent that many of the most serious problems faced by the nation have both an economic and a political component. Graduate education, however, has remained largely compartmentalized, with most programs producing students who, while well trained in economics or in political science, are not trained in both. The Caltech Ph.D. program in social science is designed to graduate scholars who are well grounded in the theoretical perspectives, the quantitative techniques, and the experimental methods of economics and of political science and who also have been introduced to quantitative history, law, anthropology, and psychology. In addition to providing students with a solid foundation in the underlying disciplines, the program has a substantial policy component that brings institutional design to policy studies in a way that is done at no other institution.
Nursing students often continue working while earning their RN-to-MSN online. Many programs offer flexible scheduling options designed for working nurses. Students can often choose between full-time, part-time, or accelerated enrollment options. The best online RN-to-MSN programs offer a variety of specialization and enrollment options to meet the needs of nursing students and train nurses for advanced practice roles.
The combined BS/MS professional Master's is a self-funded program for outstanding current Weldon School undergraduates who have the desire to focus on industry training.  The combined degree BS/MS program focuses on the professional skills needed to be competitive in industry(regulatory affairs, business, project management, etc.) and is meant to help accelerate a student's path to leadership positions. This combined degree program allows students to finish their Master's degree at an expedited pace. Students electing the industry immersion option will also gain up to 12 months of experience working in the field of biomedical engineering.
Lato sensu graduate degrees: degrees that represent a specialization in a certain area and take from 1 to 2 years to complete. It can sometimes be used to describe a specialization level between a master's degree and an MBA. In that sense, the main difference is that the Lato Sensu courses tend to go deeper into the scientific aspects of the study field, while MBA programs tend to be more focused on the practical and professional aspects, being used more frequently to Business, Management and Administration areas. However, since there are no norms to regulate this, both names are used indiscriminately most of the time.
Master's degrees are commonly titled using the form 'Master of ...', where either a faculty (typically Arts or Science) or a field (Engineering, Physics, Chemistry, Business Administration, etc.) is specified. The two most common titles of master's degrees are the Master of Arts (MA/M.A./A.M) and Master of Science (MSc/M.S./S.M.) degrees; which normally consist of a mixture of research and taught material.[47][48]
Master of Science in Communications Executive Master of Public Administration Masters of Business Administration Master’s in Applied Data Science Master of Science in Accounting Master of Science in Information Management Master of Science in Computer Science Master of Science in Computer Engineering Master’s in Library Science Master of Science in Cybersecurity Master of Science in Business Analytics
Forensic psychology involves applying psychology to the field of criminal investigation and law. Forensic psychologists typically have a master's in forensic psychology at the minimum, but many hold a PhD in clinical or counseling psychology. Forensic psychologists may work in various settings, including family courts, drug courts, criminal courts, or private consulting.
The Master of Science, or MS degree, is a type of masters degree that is typically awarded in the sciences, technology, engineering, medicine and mathematical subjects such as computer science and analytics. Generally, an M.S. degree takes 2 years of full time study and requires a thesis or research project. Admission to M.S. programs is usually contingent on the applicant having previously obtained their Bachelor’s degree which is often a Bachelor of Science.
EE at Caltech emphasizes both the fundamentals of electronics and systems, as well as acknowledging the multi-disciplinary nature of the field. Closely allied with Computation and Neural Systems, Applied Physics, Bioengineering, Computer Science, and Control and Dynamical System, it offers students the opportunity for study and research, both theoretical and experimental, in a wide variety of subjects, including wireless systems, quantum electronics, modern optics, lasers and guided waves, solid-state materials and devices, bio-optics and bio-electronics, power and energy systems, control theory, learning systems, computational finance, signal processing, data compression, communications, parallel and distributed computing, fault-tolerant computing, and computational vision.  Substantial experimental laboratory facilities, housed mainly in the Moore Laboratory of Engineering, are associated with each of these research fields.

The term "graduate school" is used more widely by North American universities than by those in the UK. However, numerous universities in the UK have formally launched graduate schools, including the University of Birmingham, Durham University, Keele University, the University of Nottingham, Bournemouth University, Queen's University Belfast and the University of London, which includes graduate schools at King's College London, Royal Holloway and University College London. They often coordinate the supervision and training of candidates for doctorates.
The form "Master in ..." is also sometimes used, particularly where a faculty title is used for an integrated master's in addition to its use in a traditional postgraduate master's, e.g. Master in Science (MSci) and Master in Arts (MArts). This form is also sometimes used with other integrated master's degrees,[50] and occasionally for postgraduate master's degrees (e.g. Master's in Accounting).[51] Some universities use Latin degree names; because of the flexibility of syntax in Latin, the Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees may be known in these institutions as Magister artium and Magister scientiæ or reversed from the English order to Artium magister and Scientiæ magister. Examples of the reversed usage include Harvard University, the University of Chicago and MIT, leading to the abbreviations A.M. and S.M. for these degrees. The forms "Master of Science" and "Master in Science" are indistinguishable in Latin, thus MSci is "Master of Natural Sciences" at the University of Cambridge.
Some schools set minimum GPAs and test scores below which they will not accept any applicants;[10] this reduces the time spent reviewing applications. On the other hand, many other institutions often explicitly state that they do not use any sort of cut-offs in terms of GPA or the GRE scores. Instead, they claim to consider many factors, including past research achievements, the compatibility between the applicant's research interest and that of the faculty, the statement of purpose and the letters of reference, as stated above. Some programs also require professors to act as sponsors. Finally, applicants from non-English speaking countries often must take the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL).[11]

For Masters students, funding is generally available to first-year students whose transcripts reflect exceptionally high grades; this funding can also be obtained in the second year of studies. Funding for Ph.D. students comes from a variety of sources, and many universities waive tuition fees for doctoral candidates (This may also occur for masters students of some universities). Funding is available in the form of scholarships, bursaries and other awards, both private and public.
Nurses who choose an online ASN-to-MSN program often continue working while earning their degree. Many programs offer flexible schedules, including asynchronous courses with no set login times. Nursing students can choose a full- or part-time option, depending on the program. Some programs also offer accelerated options, in which nurses with an ASN complete their MSN within two years.
Rural communities—both in the U.S. and globally—face an extraordinarily complex set of challenges due to sparse settlements and geographic isolation, exacerbated by globalization and technological change in an interdependent urban-rural system. Addressing these challenges requires both the theoretical insights of multiple disciplines and the practical wisdom that derives from engagement in...
Master of Science in Communications Executive Master of Public Administration Masters of Business Administration Master’s in Applied Data Science Master of Science in Accounting Master of Science in Information Management Master of Science in Computer Science Master of Science in Computer Engineering Master’s in Library Science Master of Science in Cybersecurity Master of Science in Business Analytics
The old Spanish degrees of Licenciado (Licenciate), Arquitecto (Architect) and Ingeniero (Engineer) are also equivalent to master's degrees. They were integrated programmes of study that combined first and second cycles and led to a second cycle qualification. The Spanish government issued a royal decree in 2014 establishing the official equivalences between the Spanish pre-Bologna degrees and the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) levels.[92] Most (if not all) Licenciado, Arquitecto and Ingeniero degrees were placed in level 7 (Master) of the EQF. These programmes have been phased out and replaced with the new Bologna programmes of Máster, to be completed after completion of a programme of Grado (Bachelor's).
A research-based master’s degree program at the Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering is available for Indiana University School of Medicine medical students seeking to earn both MD and MS BME degrees. The seamless integration of the timelines for the two degrees allows these students to complete both degrees in five years. The MS BME/MD program leverages the students’ clinical training and medical school coursework to advance innovative engineering solutions for challenges in healthcare delivery. Significant areas for translational research projects include implantable medical devices, engineered tissues and biomaterials, point-of-care diagnostics, advanced medical imaging, and systems engineering of healthcare delivery. Students earning this degree gain firsthand knowledge of medical technology innovation and strategies for clinical translation. They will strengthen their ability to pursue medical research, to facilitate clinical testing of new therapies, and to collaborate effectively with the biomedical industry.
Though there is substantial variation among universities, departments, and individuals, humanities and social science doctorates on average take somewhat longer to complete than natural science doctorates. These differences are due to the differing nature of research between the humanities and some social sciences and the natural sciences and to the differing expectations of the discipline in coursework, languages, and length of dissertation. However, time required to complete a doctorate also varies according to the candidate's abilities and choice of research. Some students may also choose to remain in a program if they fail to win an academic position, particularly in disciplines with a tight job market; by remaining a student, they can retain access to libraries and university facilities, while also retaining an academic affiliation, which can be essential for conferences and job-searches.
Are you seeking a career in the healthcare industry, medical device development, entrepreneurship, or regulatory affairs? Or perhaps you’re interested in combining engineering research and design with clinical care? We are offering multiple exciting new pathways to a graduate degree to meet the diverse career interests of our students and the industry's growing demand of biomedical engineers with advanced degrees.
Students study interdisciplinary knowledge and problem-solving skills in the rapidly emerging areas of information technology applications. They cover the general theories of information and systems, major techniques of information retrieval and management, and practical skills of communication, problem solving, and project management that information professionals and system analyst should possess.

Admission to a master's degree normally requires successful completion of study at bachelor's degree level either (for postgraduate degrees) as a stand-alone degree or (for integrated degrees) as part of an integrated scheme of study. In countries where the bachelor's degree with honours is the standard undergraduate degree, this is often the normal entry qualification.[59][72] In addition, students will normally have to write a personal statement and, in the arts and humanities, will often have to submit a portfolio of work.[73]
At the start of the twentieth century there were therefore four different sorts of master's degree in the UK: the Scottish MA, granted as a first degree; the Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin), granted to all BA graduates a certain period after their first degree without further study; master's degrees that could be gained either by further study or by gaining an honours degree (which, at the time in the UK involved further study beyond the ordinary degree, as it still does in Scotland and some Commonwealth countries); and master's degrees that could only be obtained by further study (including all London master's degrees). In 1903, the London Daily News criticised the practice of Oxford and Cambridge, calling their MAs "the most stupendous of academic frauds" and "bogus degrees".[30] Ensuing correspondence pointed out that "A Scotch M.A., at the most, is only the equivalent of an English B.A." and called for common standards for degrees, while defenders of the ancient universities said that "the Cambridge M.A. does not pretend to be a reward of learning" and that "it is rather absurd to describe one of their degrees as a bogus one because other modern Universities grant the same degree for different reasons".[31][32]
The Applied Mechanics department was founded nearly five decades ago to focus on research and education in the areas of solid mechanics and dynamics. Current research is mainly in the area of dynamics, dealing with topics such as vibrations of structures and machinery, structural response to earthquakes, including system identification and control of structural response, and fundamental studies of the behavior of nonlinear dynamical systems.
Many universities award graduate degrees; a graduate school is not necessarily a separate institution. While the term "graduate school" is typical in the United States and often used elsewhere (e.g., Canada), "postgraduate education" is also used in English-speaking countries (Australia, Bangladesh, Canada, India, Ireland, India, New Zealand, Pakistan, and the UK) to refer to the spectrum of education beyond a bachelor's degree. Those attending graduate schools are called "graduate students" (in both American and British English), or often in British English as "postgraduate students" and, colloquially, "postgraduates" and "postgrads". Degrees awarded to graduate students include master's degrees, doctoral degrees, and other postgraduate qualifications such as graduate certificates and professional degrees.
Enrolling in a master's degree program is a significant investment. And as the earnings studies from the Bureau of Labor Statistics show, it can be a very worthwhile one. But those higher earnings start to come in, tuition (and other) bills need to be paid in the short term. Fortunately, there are a number of financial resources that can help make a master's degree program more affordable. Scholarships, grants, and educational loans are all designed to aid eligible master's degree students in paying for tuition, books, and living expenses.
An online BSN-to-MSN appeals to nurses seeking career advancement who prefer the flexibility of an online learning format. Applicants to BSN-to-MSN programs must hold a current, valid RN license, provide proof of a bachelor of science in nursing, and meet the program's GPA minimum. Many programs also ask for letters of recommendation, a resume, and a statement of purpose. After entering the MSN program, nursing students complete coursework in their specialization and meet clinical requirements.
At English-speaking Canadian universities, both master's and Ph.D. theses may be presented in English or in the language of the subject (German for German literature, for example), but if this is the case an extensive abstract must be also presented in English. In exceptional circumstances, a thesis may be presented in French.[citation needed] The exception to this rule is McGill University, where all work can be submitted in either English or French, unless the purpose of the course of study is acquisition of a language.[29]
Research master's degrees are primarily research based, although may contain taught elements, particularly on research methods. Examples are the MLitt (usually, but not always a research degree), the Master's by Research, and the MPhil. The Master's by Research (MbyRes, ResM), which is a research degree, is distinct from the Master of Research (MRes), which is a taught degree concentrating on research methods.[60]
Traditionally, doctoral programs were only intended to last three to four years and, in some disciplines (primarily the natural sciences), with a helpful advisor, and a light teaching load, it is possible for the degree to be completed in that amount of time. However, increasingly many disciplines, including most humanities, set their requirements for coursework, languages and the expected extent of thesis research by the assumption that students will take five years minimum or six to seven years on average; competition for jobs within these fields also raises expectations on the length and quality of theses considerably.
Foreign students are typically funded the same way as domestic (US) students, although federally subsidized student and parent loans and work-study assistance are generally limited to US citizens and nationals, permanent residents, and approved refugees.[37] Moreover, some funding sources (such as many NSF fellowships) may only be awarded to domestic students. Other factors contributing to possible financial difficulties include high costs to visit their families back home, supporting one's family who is not allowed to work due to immigration laws, tuition that is steep by world standards, and large fees: visa fees by US Citizenship and Immigration Services, surveillance fees (such as Student and Exchange Visitor Information Systems, or SEVIS[38]) by the United States Congress and the United States Department of Homeland Security.
In 2000 renewed pressure was put on Oxbridge MAs in the UK Parliament, with Labour MP Jackie Lawrence introducing an early day motion calling for them to be scrapped and telling the Times Higher Education it was a "discriminatory practice" and that it "devalues and undermines the efforts of students at other universities".[40][41] The following month the Quality Assurance Agency announced the results of a survey of 150 major employers showing nearly two thirds mistakenly thought the Cambridge MA was a postgraduate qualification and just over half made the same error regarding the Edinburgh MA, with QAA chief executive John Randall calling the Oxbridge MA "misleading and anachronistic".[42]
A doctoral degree is the highest level of graduate degree. It is achieved by a little more than one percent of the population, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. As is the case with all higher education, the cost of a doctoral degree will vary by school, but can be a significant investment. Most students complete doctoral degree programs within ten years, although some finish in as little as four years.
Upon completion of this concentration students are highly marketable and are likely to obtain positions that require geospatial analyses, ranging from environmental positions to military intelligence and private consulting. Graduates work in areas as diverse as environmental organizations to the oil and minerals industry, utility and transportation companies, spatial network management, and other fields. Offered online or on campus.

Traditionally, doctoral programs were only intended to last three to four years, and in some disciplines (primarily the natural sciences), with a helpful advisor and a light teaching load, it is possible for the degree to be completed in that amount of time. However, increasingly many disciplines, including most humanities, set their requirements for coursework, languages, and the expected extent of dissertation research by the assumption that students will take five years minimum or six to seven years on average; competition for jobs within these fields also raises expectations on the length and quality of dissertations considerably.
Master's candidates undertaking research are typically required to complete a thesis comprising some original research and ranging from seventy to two-hundred pages. Some fields may require candidates to study at least one foreign language if they have not already earned sufficient foreign-language credits. Some faculties require candidates to defend their thesis, but many do not. Those that do not often have a requirement of taking two additional courses, minimum, in lieu of preparing a thesis.
During an ADN-to-MSN program, nursing students complete curriculum and clinical requirements. Most programs begin with undergraduate-level coursework, and some grant a BSN to nursing students as they complete the MSN prerequisites. Once students enter the MSN program, they choose a specialization and complete graduate-level coursework. MSN programs also include clinical hours to build the skills required for advanced practice roles.
It is imperative that copies of the student’s thesis be given to the supervisory committee at least two weeks in advance of the final examination. Graduation may be delayed for those who do not adhere to this rule. The Student Services Office should be informed of the examination one week prior to the thesis defense date in order to process the Final Exam Report form and send out notices. Students are also required to complete an Exit Survey during the semester they plan to graduate. Students can find more information about the Exit Survey in the Student Services Office.
Postgraduate studies in Israel require the completion of a bachelor's degree and is dependent upon this title's grades; see Education in Israel #Higher education. Degrees awarded are the M.A., M.Sc., M.B.A. and LLM; the Technion awards a non-thesis M.Eng. [95] There also exists "a direct track" doctorate degree, which lasts four to five years. Taking this route, students prepare a preliminary research paper during their first year, after which they must pass an exam before being allowed to proceed, at which point they are awarded a master's degree.
Dual Master of Public Health/Master of Science in Management and Organizational Behavior Master of Science in Management and Organizational Behavior Accelerated MSMOB Master of Science in Accountancy Accelerated Masters in Business Administration Dual Master of Business Administration/Master of Public Health Dual Master of Business Administration/Master of Science in Management and Organizational Behavior Master of Business Administration Master of Public Health - Health Education & Promotion Master of Science in Nutrition and Wellness Master of Public Health - Health Management & Policy Master of Public Health Master of Science in Nursing Master of Science in Nursing - Nurse Educator Dual MBA-MSN Master of Science in Nursing - Nurse Executive Leader Master of Public Health - Epidemiology Focus

Master's candidates undertaking research are typically required to complete a thesis comprising some original research and ranging from seventy to two-hundred pages. Some fields may require candidates to study at least one foreign language if they have not already earned sufficient foreign-language credits. Some faculties require candidates to defend their thesis, but many do not. Those that do not, often have a requirement of taking two additional courses, at minimum, in lieu of preparing a thesis.
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