Graduate students must usually declare their research goal or submit a research proposal upon entering grad school; in the case of master's degrees, there will be some flexibility (that is, one is not held to one's research proposal, although major changes, for example from premodern to modern history, are discouraged). In the case of Ph.D.s, the research direction is usually known as it will typically follow the direction of the master's research.
Generally, the Australian higher education system[23] follows that of its British counterpart (with some notable exceptions). Entrance is decided by merit, entrance to coursework-based programmes is usually not as strict; most universities usually require a "Credit" average as entry to their taught programmes in a field related to their previous undergraduate. On average, however, a strong "Credit" or "Distinction" average is the norm for accepted students. Not all coursework programs require the student to already possess the relevant undergraduate degree, they are intended as "conversion" or professional qualification programs, and merely any relevant undergraduate degree with good grades is required.
There has also been some confusion over the conversion of the different marking schemes between British, US, and Australian systems for the purpose of assessment for entry to graduate programmes. The Australian grades are divided into four categories: High Distinction, Distinction, Credit, and Pass (though many institutions have idiosyncratic grading systems). Assessment and evaluation based on the Australian system is not equivalent to British or US schemes because of the "low-marking" scheme used by Australian universities. For example, a British student who achieves 70+ will receive an A grade, whereas an Australian student with 70+ will receive a Distinction which is not the highest grade in the marking scheme.
A large share of the funding offered to junior researchers is channeled through the école doctorale, mainly in the shape of three-years "Doctoral Fellowships" (contrats doctoraux). These fellowships are awarded after submitting a biographical information, undergraduate and graduate transcripts where applicable, letters of recommendation, and research proposal, then an oral examination by an Academical Committee.

The Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering offers the non‐thesis option for the Master of Engineering and Master of Science degrees. The non‐thesis Master of Science student is required to do a technical job interview with an assigned faculty member. No final exam is required for students pursuing the non‐thesis Master of Engineering degree.


Geographic Information Science (GIScience or GISci) includes the existing technologies and research areas of geographic information systems (GIS), cartography, remote sensing, photogrammetry, surveying (also termed geomatics in the U.S.), and quantitative spatial analysis. GIScience therefore addresses fundamental issues in the use of digital technology to handle...

In addition to social services, those with a graduate degree in psychology are also qualified to work in research or educational settings. College and universities employ PhD-level (and occasionally masters level) graduates to fill faculty positions. Professors are generally expected to teach undergraduate- and graduate-level students as well as conduct research.

The supervisory committee is the group of faculty members that supervises and approves the student’s graduate program. The committee’s function is to guide the student through his/her thesis research and to administer the oral final examination. The supervisory committee should be selected as soon as possible but no later than the end of the second semester. After the committee has been determined, the student should obtain a Supervisory Committee Form from the ECE Student Services Office (230 Larsen) and have the professors sign the form indicating their willingness to serve on the committee. The Graduate School may deny degrees to any persons who have failed to comply with this regulation at the proper time.
Are you seeking a career in the healthcare industry, medical device development, entrepreneurship, or regulatory affairs? Or perhaps you’re interested in combining engineering research and design with clinical care? We are offering multiple exciting new pathways to a graduate degree to meet the diverse career interests of our students and the industry's growing demand of biomedical engineers with advanced degrees.

Human development and family studies offers graduate work leading to master of science and doctor of philosophy degrees. Graduate programs take a multidisciplinary approach, preparing students for college and university teaching and research, as well as development, administration, and evaluation of programs serving individuals and families across the lifespan.


The Professional Science Master, or PSM degree, is a graduate degree intended to allow students to pursue advance training in science or mathematics at the same time as developing workplace skills. PSM programs tend to be interdisciplinary, can take about 2 years of full time study, and usually involve an internship. Often, you can find the PSM degree in forensic science, computational chemistry, applied mathematics and bioinformatics programs (STEM fields).
At many universities, graduate students are employed by their university to teach classes or do research. While all graduate employees are graduate students, many graduate students are not employees. MBA students, for example, usually pay tuition and do not have paid teaching or research positions. In many countries graduate employees have collectively organized labor unions in order to bargain a contract with their university. In Canada, for example, almost all graduate employees are members of a CUPE local.

The combined BS/MS is a special program for outstanding current Weldon School undergraduates who have established research relationships with faculty members. This program was created to provide further training to undergraduates who have been conducting research in the labs of our faculty and who strongly desire to continue their research toward an MS or PhD degree. The ultimate plan of study is intended to prepare students for PhD level graduate studies or research-oriented industry positions. The proposed program enables students to complete the BS and the MS in a total of five, rather than the typical six, years.


An MSN helps nurses advance their careers and increase their earning potential. During an MSN program, nursing students build valuable clinical skills while completing core nursing classes and specialization coursework. Common MSN classes include advanced health assessment, advanced pharmacology, and nursing research. Within a specialization, MSN students complete additional coursework and clinical hours to become a nurse practitioner, nurse midwife, or another advanced practice registered nurse.
Nursing students in a BSN-to-MSN program take classes in advanced health assessment, patient care, and evidence-based practice. Students also choose an MSN specialization, such as midwifery, anesthesiology, or gerontology. Many MSN programs also offer tracks for nurse practitioners. Most programs require at least 200 clinical hours, with some nurse practitioner programs requiring over 600 hours.
The bioengineering option at Caltech is designed for students interested in subjects that form the core of the new interdisciplinary science of bioengineering. These branches of science provide the basis for the growth of modern technology. Students may choose biology, chemistry, physics, engineering, and applied mathematics as their elective subjects and choose a thesis adviser within the divisions of Engineering and Applied Science, Biology and Biological Engineering, or Chemistry and Chemical Engineering.
Postgraduate studies in Israel require the completion of a bachelor's degree and is dependent upon this title's grades; see Education in Israel #Higher education. Degrees awarded are the M.A., M.Sc., M.B.A. and LLM; the Technion awards a non-thesis M.Eng. [95] There also exists "a direct track" doctorate degree, which lasts four to five years. Taking this route, students prepare a preliminary research paper during their first year, after which they must pass an exam before being allowed to proceed, at which point they are awarded a master's degree.
Students who are considering pursing an advanced degree at the graduate degree level often have many questions about what to expect in grad school. Going to graduate school is both a costly and time-consuming endeavor and students may feel nervous about committing to advancing their education. You are not alone. At some point in time the frequently asked questions we have gathered have been asked by one student or another. We are hear to help provide answers to these questions the best we can. Let's start with the question of popularity. To the right, we have listed popular subjects our users visit often.
While not specifically a degree in counseling, the Master of Social Work allows graduates to provide counseling services. The MSW degree is perhaps the most popular option because it is recognized in all 50 states, and insurance companies are willing to reimburse MSWs for services. This makes it a popular choice for students who are interested in putting their degree to use immediately after graduation.
Oregon State University's Applied Economics Graduate Program offers M.S., M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in Applied Economics. The curricula provide, at both master’s and doctoral levels: (i) a foundation of rigorous core courses in economic theory, econometrics, and other quantitative methods; and (ii) areas of concentration in resource and environmental economics, trade and development, and other...
Oregon State University offers both Master and PhD Public Policy degrees for students interested in the study and practice of policy about issues critical to Oregonians and the world, drawing on the traditional strengths and emerging signature areas of OSU. While there is a science of policy including theoretical and methodological approaches that we expect students to master, the discipline...
Master's candidates undertaking research are typically required to complete a thesis comprising some original research and ranging from seventy to two-hundred pages. Some fields may require candidates to study at least one foreign language if they have not already earned sufficient foreign-language credits. Some faculties require candidates to defend their thesis, but many do not. Those that do not often have a requirement of taking two additional courses, minimum, in lieu of preparing a thesis.
This concentration is grounded in the recreational, cultural, informational, and educational needs of 21st century youth from birth through the teen years. Students study the selection of a broad range of resources in all media formats to reflect awareness of, and sensitivity to, the social and cultural needs of all youth and the design of reader’s advisory services, library programs, and literacy activities in public and school library settings.

We offer the most comprehensive range of accredited public health graduate degree program in Oregon and are gaining momentum and enthusiasm as the state’s first accredited college of public health. Our interdisciplinary approach, research centers and focus on both rural and urban health will enrich your educational experience and set you apart in this evolving profession.

Foreign students are typically funded the same way as domestic (US) students, although federally subsidized student and parent loans and work-study assistance are generally limited to U.S. citizens and nationals, permanent residents, and approved refugees.[14] Moreover, some funding sources (such as many NSF fellowships) may only be awarded to domestic students. International students often have unique financial difficulties such as high costs to visit their families back home, support of a family not allowed to work due to immigration laws, tuition that is expensive by world standards, and large fees: visa fees by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, and surveillance fees under the Student and Exchange Visitor Program of the United States Department of Homeland Security.[15]

Doctorates. These are often further divided into academic and professional doctorates. An academic doctorate can be awarded as a Doctor of Philosophy degree (from Latin Doctor philosophiæ; Ph.D. or D.Phil.) or as a Doctor of Science degree (from Latin Doctor scientiæ; D.Sc.). The Doctor of Science degree can also be awarded in specific fields, such as a Doctor of Science in Mathematics degree (from Latin Doctor scientiarum mathematic arum; D.Sc.Math.), a Doctor of Agricultural Science degree (from Latin Doctor scientiarum agrariarum; D.Sc.Agr.), a Doctor of Business Administration degree (D.B.A.), etc. In some parts of Europe, doctorates are divided into the Doctor of Philosophy degree or "junior doctorate," and the "higher doctorates" such as the Doctor of Science degree, which is generally awarded to highly distinguished professors. A doctorate is the terminal degree in most fields. In the United States, there is little distinction between a Doctor of Philosophy degree and a Doctor of Science degree. In the UK, Doctor of Philosophy degrees are often equivalent to 540 CATS credits or 270 ECTS European credits, but this is not always the case as the credit structure of doctoral degrees is not officially defined.
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